Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<div class='header' role='banner' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div id='mainMenu' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' role='complementary' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea' role='main'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

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.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
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#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
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.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
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.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
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.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
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.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
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.wizard .notChanged {background:transparent;}
.wizard .changedLocally {background:#80ff80;}
.wizard .changedServer {background:#8080ff;}
.wizard .changedBoth {background:#ff8080;}
.wizard .notFound {background:#ffff80;}
.wizard .putToServer {background:#ff80ff;}
.wizard .gotFromServer {background:#80ffff;}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.readOnly {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:alpha(opacity=60);}
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0; top:0;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 0.3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0 0; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
<div class='toolbar' role='navigation' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
OPAR pg. 172:
> Man is a being of limited knowledge -- //and he must therefore identify the cognitive context of his conclusions//. In any situation where there is reason to suspect that a variety of factors is relevant to the truth, only some of which are presently known, he is obliged to acknowledge this fact.  The implicit or explicit preamble to his conclusion must be: "On the basis of the available evidence, i.e. within the context of the factors so far discovered, the following is the proper conclusion to draw".  Therefore the individual must continue to observe and identify; should new information warrant it, he must qualify his conclusion accordingly.

from The Art of Thinking:
> What counts as "reason to suspect"? 

OPAR pg. 175:
> The fact of context does not weaken human conclusions or make them vulnerable to overthrow.  On the contrary, context is precisely what makes a (properly specified) conclusion invulnerable.

OPAR pg. 178 - 179
> The concept of "certainty" designates knowledge from a particular perspective: it designates some complex items of knowledge [NOT all complex items, NO simple items]
> considered in contrast to the transitional evidential states that precede them. (By extension, the term may be applied to all knowledge, perceptual and conceptual, to indicate that it is free of doubt.) A conclusion is "certain" when the evidence in its favor is conclusive; i.e., when it has been logically validated. At this stage, one has gone beyond "substantial" evidence. Rather, the total of the available evidence points in a single direction, and this evidence fulfills the standard of proof. In such a context, there is nothing to suggest even the possibility of another interpretation. There are, therefore, no longer any grounds for doubt.

OPAR pg. 179
> Certainty, like possibility and [[probability|Leonard Peikoff's views on probability]], is contextual. It is a verdict reached within a definite framework of evidence, and it stands or falls with the evidence. 
|! hierarchical classification: | [[relationship]] |
|! fundamental characteristic: | different measure or degree of characteristic |
|! purpose: | [[supplying the mind]] with preconceptual data ➞ [[conceptual thought|conceptualization]] ➞  [[ensuring productive thinking]] |

* [[concept]]
* [[omitting all particular measurements]]

* How does one grasp similarity during the process culminating in the formation of higher level [[concept]]s?

* [[Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking]]

|! hierarchical classification:      | [[grammatical relationship|grammar]] between [[clauses|clause (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | where one modifies and depends on another |
|! purpose: | identify a relationship between a less important [[clause|clause (grammar)]] and a more important one |
|! by means of: | [[connectives|connectives in the English language]] |

other benefits:
* [[variety|variety (grammar)]] 

* the [[essential]] constituent thought should be in the main [[clause|clause (grammar)]]
* the less important thought should be subordinated to the essential thought
|! hierarchical classification: | [[cryptographic|cryptography]] algorithms ⊃ [[hash function]] |
|! purpose:                           | provide a method for promoting data security |

produces a 128-bit (16-byte) [[hash value|hash function]]

why it's no longer used:
* SSL certificate validity can be faked because MD5 is not collision-resistant, i.e. the same input produces the same output
necessary conditions:
The field involved has to be one you're an expert in, where few others are able to do what you can do as well as you can.
First of all, the subject matter being discussed must be the sort of subject matter which permits genuine discussion to take place. Not everything is discussable, and not all the things which are discussable are equally discussable. For example, facts are not discussable. If there is a question of fact, the best thing to do is to go to a reference book and look it up. You can't settle a question of fact by discussion. Ideas are discussable, and the more fundamental the ideas, the more controversial they are, the more discussable they are.
|! genus: | [[uniform resource identifier]] |
|! hierarchical classification: | implementation of [[desktop virtualization]] |
|! differentia: | user interacts with emulated I/O system, graphics drivers, hardware interfaces |
|! by means of: | [[application software]] encapsulated from the underlying [[operating system]] on which it is executed |

[[server|server (computing)]] and [[client|client (computing)]]:
* emulated input output system
* emulated graphics driver
* emulated hardware interfaces
* emulated interfaces

* [[application streaming]]

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* [[operating system]]
* [[desktop environment]]
* [[application software]]
* input devices and output devices
* graphics card and drivers
Motion occurs within space.  Since [[the Totality is aspatial]], it has no space within which to roam around.  It is widely believed that the universe is expanding.  It can expand to the extent that the space within it expands, but it is not expanding into space.  Rather, space itself is (allegedly) expanding.
* posited agents are observable/detectable
* set of posited agents explain the effect
* the proposed causal relationships explains multiple phenomena
* the effect logically follows from the [[entity]] or entities acting under a certain set of conditions
** e.g. If conditions are such that a sample of penicillin interferes with the cell wall production process, the bacterium will build cell wall without reproducing until it explodes.

* [[epistemology: standards/criteria]]
|! aspect of: | [[thinking]] |

A process of thought takes [[input|inputs for thought]].

A process of thought is intentional.  Each step of the process is intentional.  

Every state of consciousness associated with the process can be assigned a node in a [[mental pathway]].

A process of thought produces content that it did not take as input.  Products of thought should be [[organized|organizing products of thought]].

During the course of a mental process, it is sometimes necessary to [[execute additional processes|spawning a mental process]].
|! hierarchical classification: | scheme for [[addressing|address space]] [[hard disk drive]]s |
|! differentia:              | [[cylinders|storage disk cylinder]] |

same [[track|storage disk track]] geometry across multiple [[platters|storage disk platter]] 

After the cylinder has been selected, a head is selected to do I/O with a specific [[track|storage disk track]]
The equations expressing physical laws must be form-invariant with respect to general continuous coordinate transformations
[[proposition]] without sufficient evidence for [[proof]]
Phenomenon P suggests X
Phenomenon Q suggests X
Phenomenon R suggests X
PQR are different from one another

What if X?
Does X [[predict|prediction]] many hitherto unknown phenomena?  if so, could be useful for [[hypothesis]] stage

|! next step: | [[unification of phenomena]] |

associated works:
* William Whewell, __Novum Organum Renovatum__
|! hieraarchical classification: | [[invariance]] |
|! differentia: | |

cause: "unstable protection" misleads us into believing we have found fundamental laws when we actually have not

There are [[scientific laws|scientific law]] that are [[invariant|invariance]] with respect to destabilizing outside influences.  

Some of those laws concern spontaneous self-organizational phenomena, e.g.:
* the universal [[properties]] of ordering of rigid bodies
* the flow of superfluids
* the emptiness of space

Self-organizational phenomena are such that underlying causes tend to be hidden by surface activity.

If a [[directly empirical scientific law]] applies to that surface activity, the [[validity|validation]] of applying that law hinges on the special behavior of the hidden cause behind the surface activity.  If something causes the hidden [[entity]] to act differently, the [[proposition]] will not apply.  See [[certainty]].

If we agree with [[H.W.B. Joseph's views on induction]], we cannot regard invariance alone as sufficient for inductive inference.  We also need [[causal reasoning]]
recognition of the [[fact]] that productive work is the process by which man’s mind sustains his life through the most purposeful use of his mind

Productiveness is a necessary precondition for productivity, but there is nothing immoral about failing to produce despite taking reasonable steps towards the product.

See [[purpose]]

antecedent knowledge for [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]]:
* [[life as the standard of value]]
* [[principle]]
* [[rationality]]

* [[increasing productivity]]
as [[functional system]]s with a [[conditional existence|conditionality of life]] dependent on [[self-produced action|self-generated action]].

characteristics of living organisms:
* take in materials from environment
* extract energy from surroundings and use energy in orderly manner
* use appropriated materials/energy for maintenance, repair, reproduction
* once they have died they cannot be reconstituted; death is an irreversible change
[[fundamental characteristic]]: [[teleological action]]

Living organisms can extract energy from its surroundings and use this energy in an orderly manner to promote its existence, its species and the continuation of its species.

actions of living organisms
* [[vegetative action]]
** metabolism
* [[conscious action]]
** [[learned behavior]]
** [[purposeful action]]

* [[natural selection]]
A [[theory]] is said to be "underdetermined" when different theories explain the [[fact]]s equally well.

The viability of rival [[theories|theory]] can be contrasted  through such things as:
* [[Decisive and Judicial Instances]]
* the [[ratio of data to patches]]
* [[explanatory power]]
* detectability of posited agents
* offers [[tests|experimentation]] that give different [[prediction]]s than rival theories
* doesn't lead to violations of 
** simplicity/economy/parsimonious
** [[Rand's razor]]
** [[Occam's razor]]
* predictions can be easily deduced from [[foundational proposition]]s
* the open-endedness affords predictive power when the [[concept]] is applied via [[proposition]]

* [[criteria for integration/unification]]
* [[criteria for hypothesis-formation]]

faith - [[belief]] in something without [[evidence]]

trust - confidence in another's capacity for good

Trust is only possible when [[fact]]s and logic allow it. 

Beware of those who try to sell you on trust indirectly.  They're really asking you to suspend your rational faculty, to believe without evidence, as an article of faith
# carefully absorb the whole
# [[abstract|abstraction]] parts
# [[set purpose|teleological hierarchy]] and let subconscious respond accordingly
# [[unify contents|processing contents of consciousness for unity]]
# set appropriate [[mode for consciousness|modes of consciousness]]
where givens/operations have costs

your aim is to maximize or minimize something
* constantly [[supplying the mind]] so you can think correctly in the future
** [[acquainting the mind with a given]]
* [[recreating informative states]]
* [[the role of abstractions|thinking as abstract]]
Sometimes, when confronted with new data, it is sometimes necessary to add something on top of the existing theory to account for the new data.

For example, there is an issue with galactic rotation.  Objects at the edge of galaxies appear to be traveling at velocities nearly equal to objects closer to the center of the galaxy.  Newton's law of gravitation cannot account for this.  Since SR is a way of reconciling electrodynamics with Newton, it would be inconvenient to drop an otherwise successful theory without finding a suitable replacement. So some physicists posited mass that does not give off light, i.e. "dark matter".

But "dark matter" isn't [[sufficient|sufficiency]] to explain an astronomical object known as the Bullet Cluster.  Either Newton is wrong or we're missing a factor.

Also, the recession of galaxies appear to be accelerating.  "Dark energy" was posited to explain this. 

We are finding places where our theory of gravity appears to be failing.  To save our theory, we have posited [[unobservables]]
[[universals]] as mental connections among the fragments of experience

|!metaphysics: | Heglian dialectics, alleged greater reality |
|!view on human life: | social system |
|!politics: | [[collectivism]] |
the [[conceptual|conceptualization]] [[knowledge]] that you must possess in order to reach a [[concept]] or [[proposition]].

|! aspect of: | [[context]] |

There are first-level concepts and there are [[higher-level concepts|abstraction from abstractions]].  First-level concepts integrate [[unit]]s reached by viewing identified perceptual concretes as members of a group of similar perceptual concretes differing from one another only in terms of measurements. Higher-level concepts either [[integrate|integration of units]] previously formed concepts or [[subdivide|conceptual subdivision]] a previously formed concept according to a category of measurement.

The mental process of [[hierarchical reduction]] will identify antecedents.
example: A person believes that one can't have meaning without religion.  When asked for reasons, he mentions the beliefs of others and a dim sense that self is more than "physical self".

When pressed, he replies "the burden is not to understand these things, [[concept]]s and precepts, but to have them alive in you"

Adrienne's hypothesis: People sometimes claim to believe something because they are expected to say it, regardless of whether they actually believe it or not.
|! hierarchical classification: | method of allocating space on [[mass storage device]]s |
|! differentia:              | concatenate [[partitions|disk partition]] into a virtual partition that can be resized etc. without interrupting system use |

most LVM implementations include the ability to migrate data off of a particular physical drive, in the event a drive starts to fail -- provided that the reserve capacity of the LVM is larger than the size of the failing drive
quantity of action by one [[entity]] on another that can change state of motion of the latter
Unless you're delighted with the default theme you can make some quick changes by generating a new random color palette, hit this button to cycle through some alternatives.

<<RandomColorPaletteButton saturation_pale:0.67 saturation_light:0.53
saturation_mid:0.43 saturation_dark:0.06 pale:0.99 light:0.85 mid:0.5 dark:0.31>>

You can also change the look and feel completely by installing a new theme. To do this, find one you like in the @themes space, note down the name, and include it in this space by going to the space menu. You can reach the space menu by clicking on the blue and pink circle at the top-right of the page and chooshing "THIS SPACE". Here are a few to check out:
* @pip
* @caspian-ii
* @basalt
* @simplicity
* @cheesecake
* @jelly-doughnut

(//Note that if you are using a custom TiddlySpace install, these themes may not be present.//)
This term is used to designate many different concepts.

virtual partitions:

virtual machines:
* Java likes to take over as much of the desktop manager as possible, e.g. mouse clicks
** if it gets corrupted, you can have trouble clicking on some things; uninstall and try again
* virtual servers

[[application virtualization]]

[[desktop virtualization]]

[[user virtualization]]
* [[explorative thinking]]
* approaches aimed at integration:
** consciously [[inter-relate|mental integration]] pieces
** [[thinking in essentials]]
* [[generating alternatives]]
* integrate to [[teleological hierarchy]]
** identify what something accomplishes -- multiple goals, benefits, how something serves an ultimate value
** [[teleogical measurement]]
** [[revisive thinking]] (see [[logic]])
* [[thinking about what's basic in a domain]] (see [[domain of thought]])
* [[thought guided by selective criteria]] -- e.g. assembling questions for an interview
[[assignment statements in Ruby]]

antecedent: [[variable (computing)]]

|! purpose |! type of execution |! input |! output |
| output a string in the middle of a string | string interpolating | {{{puts "Hello, #{name}."}}} | "Hello, Bob." |
| output a string in the middle of a string | string formatting | {{{puts "Hello, %s." %name}}} | "Hello, Bob." |
| output multiple strings in a string | string formatting | {{{puts "Hello, %s.  My name is %s." %["Bob", "Alice"]}}} | "Hello, Bob. My name is Alice."|
an execution path through [[address space]].
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body ul { margin: 0; }

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#popup .followTiddlersList .siteIcon{
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/* *** Header *** */
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.confirmationPopup a.button,
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/* *** Sidebar *** */

#sidebar .wizard table {
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.tabContents .listTitle:first-child {
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#menuBar {
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#sidebarOptions a.button:hover {
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#tiddlerDisplay, #searchResults {
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#sidebarTabs {
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#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabset {
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/* ---- Side style --- */

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/* Activity Stream */
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/* --- IE hacks from lattice --- */

/* ie hacks */
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div.tiddler .toolbar a {
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/* for printing purposes */
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|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered:           | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:                     | instance appears to be a mixture of two known species |
|! demonstrates that:            | new [[concept]] needed |

bordering instances feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior actions: | [[conceptualization]] ← [[perception]] |
|! next:              | [[factoring a phenomenon]] |
|! classification of next: | [[experimentation]] |

e.g. moss, comets, flying fish, bats

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
* [[induction]]
William James:

;empirical level only; no [[unity in knowledge|knowledge as a unity]]
>"The pragmatic method in such cases is to try to interpret each notion by tracing its respective practical consequences. What difference would it practically make to any one if this notion rather than that notion were true?"

;dispenses with absolute principles
> "The attitude of looking away from first things, principles, ‘categories,’ supposed necessities; and of looking towards last things, fruits, consequences, fasts."

;probability in place of truth
> "Her only test of probable truth is what works best in the way of leading us, what fits every part of life best and combines with the collectivity of experience’s demands, nothing being omitted."

;even mysticism can be "tried"; no [[logic]]
>"Pragmatism is willing to take anything, to follow either logic or the senses and to count the humblest and most personal experiences. She will count mystical experiences if they have practical consequences"

in essence, pragmatism is against [[mental integration]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | state of [[virtual memory]] subsystem |
|! differentia: | frequent [[paging|paging (computing)]], to the exclusion of most application-level processing |
|! aspect of:  | |

When a system is rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk, it is thrashing.
|! hierarchical classification:  | organization of data ⊃ linear [[data structure]] |
|! differentia: | collection of elements, each of which is identified by at least one array index |

* a bitmap (BMP) is a collection of elements, each of which is identified by two indices serving as coordinates
* circular [[buffer|data buffer]] -- useful for streaming?
3rd method for gaining the knowledge of laws:
>"by assuming indeed the laws we would discover, but so generally expressed, that they shall include an unlimited variety of particular laws; -- following out the consequences of this assumption, by the application of such general [[principle]]s as the case admits; -- comparing them in succession with all the particular cases within our knowledge; and, lastly, on this comparison, so modifying and restricting the general enunciation of our laws as to //make the results agree//."
~//Herschel, Preliminary Discourses on Natural Philosophy, Aphorism 210, p. 199//
|! hierarchical classification: | [[relationship]] ⊃ [[invariance]] |

An entity has compositional invariance when constituents remain the same despite structural transformations.
For any [[content of consciousness|contents of consciousness]], there is a window of opportunity for directing further mental activity.

what must be done with any [[contents of consciousness]]:
# Enumerate particular items in consciousness
** For every subsequent particular, consider the previous particulars, looking for [[similarities|similarity]] and differences.
** If you find yourself [[likening|analogy]] the particular item to past existents, re-cog the item and distinguish it.
** If you find yourself automatically classifying the particulars, identify the particular "measurements".
** If you time-out searching for particulars, take a snapshot of the pattern of input and move on
# Revisit the identified particulars, looking for strongest conceptual connections among the items
# Grasp how the items stand in relation to values and goals.
# Let subconscious generate for-pattern-do [[standing orders|standing orders for the subconscious]] that matches the pattern at least in part
# Identify relevance of each for-pattern-do [[standing order|standing orders for the subconscious]] and place in appropriate [[queue(s)|queued mental operation]]
# [[Validate|validation]] subconscious output/repertoire by means of [[contextual substantiation]]
# Generate next order for subconscious

optional actions:
* [[horizontal integration]], i.e. with the rest of one's knowledge, if one has time to "drop out of" one's shifting environment for a moment

special situations:
* [[processing real-time experience]]
* [[contextual substantiation]]

* [[introspection]]

!! to do:

FIND: general process for dealing with consciousness and products of subconscious

* set of all mental situations warranting specific mental actions
** aspect: their process times, to determine the order of operations that will ensure the highest efficiency
* identification of birfurcation points, i.e. where you have a choice about going one way rather than another
** item: attend stream of inputs vs track contents for later thought

specific problems I'm working on

* stuff in focal awareness
* output of the continuous process

* identify what is in forefront without losing connection with what was in peripheral
* maintain a written list of predicates which are necessary for recovering from interruption 


# pay attention to wording
** if statement,
### relate statements to yield possible intention
### check understanding
** if question,
### check understanding
# connect to knowledge base and integrate
# subconscious output should be connected to what was said and evaluated for relevance



# introduce seed
# [[integrate with other knowledge|horizontal integration]] to produce domain of thought
|! hierarchical classification: | mental skill |
|! purpose: | [[learning]]  |

# [[inspectional reading]]
# [[ordinary reading and dividing the stream of material into manageable segments|reading for managing sessions]]
# Identify the unknowns in the current segment being processed:
** [[Reread for clarifying uses of ordinary words|reading for diction]].
** Read //again// for noting the technical [[term]]s and [[proposition]]s least clear to you, but do NOT start learning a new topic.
** Classify the relationships between what you know and what you don't.
# Apply [[conceptual reading]] to anything unclear or new in the current segment.
# [[Read for outlining|outlining the structure of a work]].
# Given the outline, apply [[logical reading]].
# Evaluate the work.
** Judge the [[argument]]s -- information? logic? incomplete/[[context]]?
** Determine whether problems were solved.
** Note problems that have not been solved.
** Note new problems raised in the course of trying to solve the problems.
# Integrate what you've read to other knowledge you possess.
** [[contextual substantiation]]
** Consider other works on the same topic(s).

!! explanations for the ordering of this process
* [[unity before diction]]

!! managing this topic
This list is huge and violates the limit on what the human mind can hold together as a unity.
You must summarize in such a manner that everything else is reachable from the new summary.
* [[Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy]]
* [[The Ominous Parallels]]
* [[Civilization and its Enemies]]
* [[The DIM Hypothesis]]
 specification of the relationship between different hardware components of a computer system

relevant hardware components:
* [[computer processor]]
* [[main memory]]
* [[bus|bus (computing)]] vs [[datapath|datapath (computing)]]

subcategories of computer architectures:
* [[symmetric multiprocessing]]
depends on certain types of [[prerogative instances|Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]:
* instances that [[differentiate|differentiation]]:
** [[conspicuous instance having one action]] -- differentiates situations involving "required nature", enabling the mind to identify the [[contextually|context]] [[fundamental characteristic]]
** [[Constitutive Instances]] -- instances themselves are actually species, i.e. identify instance as species of predicate
** [[Singular Instances]] -- unique instances of a new genera
** [[Deviating Instances]]
** [[Subjunctive Instances]] -- indicate extremes for a measurement-range, outside of which is some other range (e.g. red vs yellow)
* instances that encourage [[integration|integration of facts]]:
** [[Clandestine Instances]] -- 
** [[Physical Resemblances]] -- share physical resemblance, which explains similarity in effect; use [[Herschel's rule on strong analogies]]
** [[Instances of Alliance or Union]] -- help unite things held to be heterogeneous
*** interosculant instances -- species uniting two genera
* instances demanding modification of [[conceptual hierarchy]]:
** [[Bordering Instances]] -- appears to be mixtures
concluded through [[reason]] instead of blindly accepting beliefs of others as true

doesn't have to originate all their ideas; just has to be show examples of their ideas

if nothing else, they must be able to dissect the logic behind their beliefs, all the way back to reality and top-level abstractions
> Man is an animal, but the essence of his unique nature lies precisely in those characteristics that are not shared with any other animal. His place in nature and his supreme significance to man are not defined by his animality but by his humanity. Man has certain basic diagnostic features which set him off most sharply from any other animal.  This sharp distinction is an absolute difference in kind and not only a relative difference of degree.  In the basic diagnosis of Homo sapiens, the most important features are intelligence, [mental] flexibility, the ability to adapt the environment to his needs, individualization and socialization [division of labor and the transmission of knowledge ?]. 

on man as the highest animal:
> It has often been remarked . . . that if, say, a fish, were a student of evolution it would laugh at such pretensions on the part of the animal that is so clumsy in the water and that lacks such features of perfection as gills or a homoceral caudal fin.  I suspect that the fish's reaction would be, instead, to marvel that there are men who question the fact that man is the highest animal.  It is not beside the point to add that the "fish' that made such judgments would have to //be// a man!
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | instances in relation to the [[universal of inductive interest]] |
|! identification: | instance is a member of a narrower species of the [[concept]] |
|! purpose:        | [[classification]] |

|! prior action: | grasping [[similarities|similarity]] and [[differences|differentiation]] |

e.g. heat and magnetism can remain after removing source, yet illumination from source of light does not; heat, magnetism, and light are species of transfer

Also, at some [[threshold|threshold instances]], a thing is changed sufficiently so that an effect occurs
What data structures should be built?

For any mental session:
* each item serving as hon (root, origin, source) for a growing assembly
* each activity as stage of a process
* intention(s) driving each activity

For conversations:
* conversation history

For [[processing real-time experience]]:
* visual history
* auditory history
* tactile history
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[abstract data type]] ⊃ (key, value) pairs |
|! differentia: | each key appears only once in the collection |

* addition
* removal
* modification
* lookup
segregation of the design decisions in a computer program that are most likely to change, thus protecting other parts of the program from extensive modification if the design decision is changed. The protection involves providing a stable interface which protects the remainder of the program from the implementation (the details that are most likely to change).

information hiding is the ability to prevent certain aspects of a class or software component from being accessible to its clients, using either programming language features (like private variables) or an explicit exporting policy.
* spread the load
** two ATA devices should be on different ATA channels
* reduce unnecessary load globally
** can a file used by many be relocated?
* increase capacity
** motherboard with a faster SCSI controller

* [[adding ATA disk drives]]
A unit is an existent regarded as a separate member of a group of two or more [[similar|similarity]] members. 

The units constitute the "extension" of their collecting [[concept]].

[[stages of the concept of existent]]
|! hierarchical classification: | method |
|! purpose: | for establishing [[causality]] |
|! by means of: | carefully controlling variables |
|! aspect of:  | experimental science |

The experimenter does not merely observe nature; he manipulates it by holding some factor(s) constant while varying others and measuring the results.  

[[methods for experiments]]

applying rules of inference:
* [[factoring a phenomenon]]
* [[analyzing a phenomenon quantitatively]]
* [[rules for eliminating hypotheses]]

* physics -- [[measurement]], common formulation in mathematical terms

* [[causality]]
* [[causal mechanism]]
* [[hypothesis]]
aka higher-order function

|! hierarchical classification: | [[function (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | that is passed to another function as a parameter and called (executed) from within that function |
Functional [[invariance]] refers to [[physical system]]s where the function of the [[physical system]] remains the same despite changes in the [[composition]] or structure of the [[physical system]]

A [[physical system]] has functional invariance when its function remains the same despite changes in the composition or structure of the system. 
[[theorem]]: Existence is not a predicate

# Suppose existence is a predicate. Let there be predicate e such that e(x) asserts: X exists
# Therefore, there does NOT exist X such that NOT exists(x).  Formally: 
** {{{There Exists -e(x)}}}
# Then for all X, exists(x) i.e. whatever symbolized with X exists.  Formally: 
** {{{There Exists -e(x) == (x)e(x)}}}
# Unreal things can be substituted for X
# This yields an absurdity, so the supposition must be false.
the step in a production process that ultimately limits output
For each core problem identified in the [[CRT|Current Reality Tree]], identify and resolve the value conflict perpetuating it.
A composite is a substance made of different substances.
If a person states something that's false, that person is uninformed, and people will reject the ideas of that person and want to reject it from others they hear it from.

If a person states something in a deductive, rationalist way, that person is making a deductive argument, and people will associate the ideas with a top-down, deductive approach.
|! aspect of:  | [[causation]] |

two things act upon one another by virtue of their respective [[identities|identity]]

What has form must interact.

Interactions can be described in terms of [[existent-path]]s.

species of interactions:
* obstruct, impede
* [[collide|collision]]
* add to
* take from
* exchange

* [[ontological categories]]
considerations for word choice:
* directness / clarity
* familiarity
* length
* variety
from a conversation on 2012 September 15

> Simply put a dimension is a system of relationships between entities, ultimately a relationship between attributes.
> In the metaphysical sense, not the algebraic sense.

> Mathematics of course approaches the subject differently, as a problem solving tool, which is fine, obviously if you konw what you are doing you can get results. Of course, you should also keep in mind that your mathematical tools do not neccessarily describe what dimensions are in any other sense

> You have to keep in mind and not get confused and assume math tells you directly about what something is. By which I mean, sure math has many interesting things to say ,but if you then go and decide it tells you you can go back in miss the point. The math is a method, it is not proof of impossible metaphysics.

> It is method, not a means of investigation. Though it can help you do that...

>  You have to use it to study observable objects and to identify relationships., Not decide that because you think [equation XADFD] implies A, A must be how reality works. Regardless of whether or not you have observational evidence to suggest that

A field is a group of bytes that conveys meaning, i.e. constitutes a value.

|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: |  a value that contains other values |
[[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
*  [[Herschel on analyzing causation]]
*  [[Herschel on ways to know the laws of a primary causal agent]]
> likewise
> similarly
> in the same manner
moved to [[here|]]
When multiple scientific disciplines or areas of inquiry within a field of science are pointing towards the same [[predicate]] or conclusion, steps should be taken to [[explain|explanation]] the agreement.

|! hierarchical classification: | applications of [[reason]]  ⊃ [[integration of facts]] |
|! differentia:     | identifying the fundamental [[similarity]] among multiple phenomena |
|! by means of: | a new [[concept]] |
|! result:            | phenomena regarded as variations of a more general kind of phenomenon |
|! earlier knowledge: |  [[consilience|forming hypotheses: consilience]] |
Some believe JTB's are [[knowledge]]

However, we have no way of ascertaining what is [[true|truth]] except through justification. 

Justification is [[contextual|context]],  So is [[truth]]

All judgments of truth by which we justify a belief are contextual.  

There are situations known as [[Gettier cases]] where justified beliefs are accidentally true but cannot be claimed as [[knowledge]].
treating an abstraction like it's a concrete
change in geodesic

types of motion:
* translate along geodesic
* rotate about an axis
* revolve around reference point
* oscillate perpendicular to a plane
* inside-out
[[characteristics]] possessing a common [[unit]] of [[measurement]]
e.g. blue and green

[[Existents|existent]] can have the same [[characteristics]] in different measures or degree
e.g. two shades of blue

Commensurable characteristics are essential for the process of [[concept-formation]].  You must [[differentiate|differentiation]] two or more [[existent]]s from other existents possessing the same commensurable characteristics. Ayn Rand points out in ITOE that "No concept could be formed, for instance, by attempting to distinguish long objects from green objects. Incommensurable characteristics cannot be integrated into one unit."
insamuch as

in that [specification]

now that [prerequisite condition recently met]

because [reason]

since [sufficient condition for effect]
A necessary condition is a state of affairs without which an effect will not occur.

Necessity is demonstrated through [[inference of causation]]
|! genus:          | [[unit]] |
|! differentia:    | falls within the bounds of a [[concept]] but lacks the [[fundamental characteristic]] |
|! prior actions: | [[conceptualization]] ← organize [[preconceptual data]] |

table whose legs were chopped off
humans who lack a rational faculty
* empirical
** "Black Swan"
* conceptual
** [[vague borderline]]
* theoretical
** the [[ratio of data to patches]] is decreasing
** patches involve [[unobservables]]
* [[lack of coherence]]
>"Finally, we have to observe, that the detection of a possible cause, by the comparison of assembled cases, must lead to one of two things: either, 1st, The detection of a real cause, and of its manner of acting, so as to furnish a complete explanation of the facts; or, 2dly, The establishment of an [[abstract law of nature|Herschel's views on laws of nature]], pointing out two phenomena of a general kind as invariably connected; and asserting, that where one is, there the other will always be found. Such invariable connection is itself a phenomenon of a higher order than any particular fact; and when many such are discovered, we may again proceed to classify, combine, and examine them, with a view to the detection of their causes, or the discovery of still more general laws, and so on without end"
~Herschel's 10th inductive rule of philosophizing
a complete thought composed of two independent constituent thoughts 
* Your goal is to [[solve a problem|problem solving]].
** Make it work before you make it better.
** What fails should be be noisy asap.
* Clarity is better than clever
** Design for visibility to make inspection and debugging easier.
*** e.g. store data in flat text files
** Do the least surprising thing.
* Things should be made so they can be connected to other things.
* [[simple]]
** [[basic]]
** [[separation of concerns]] -- achieved through [[modularity]]:
*** Separate policy from mechanism.
*** Separate interfaces from engines.
** Fold knowledge into data so program logic can be stupid and robust. See [[information hiding (computing)]]
** Eschew the single complex interdependent solution
*** In protocol design, perfection has been reached not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
** What seems simple is usually more complicated than you think
* Conserve design time
** Make something that makes other things.
** Design for the future.
* There is no one true way
|! hierarchical classification:       | mental process ⊃ [[focus]] |
|! differentia: | mentally isolate an aspect of [[existent]]s |
|! by means of: | grasping [[similarities|similarity]] and [[differences|differentiation]] |
|! purpose:    | condense material ➞ achieve unit-reduction ➞ achieve unit-economy |
|! aspect of:  | [[attention]] |
|! complemented by: | recognizing [[context]] |

A [[conceptual abstraction|concept]] is reached through a process of [[omitting all particular measurements]].

Abstractions, as such, do not exist.

* abstract form and relationship from mental contents

How do you keep abstractions tied to reality?
* If you can quickly evoke (recall or imagine) examples, perform [[concretization]].
* If you cannot evoke examples quickly, perform [[hierarchical reduction]].
|!  purpose: | [[ensuring productive thinking]] |
|! aspect of: | [[thinking]] |

Leonard Peikoff views [[essential]]s as fundamental attributes.

Harry Binswanger warns that: if working memory has non-essentials in relation to some concept one is trying to use, then the task of correctly applying the concept will be much more difficult.

* [[characteristics]]
** [[fundamental characteristic]]
* [[context]]

* Is it possible to program the subconscious for the ability to apply anything one knows about a subject whenever the need for such recall arises?  
* Does the ability to apply such information signal the formation of a [[context]]?

|! hierarchical classification: | mental process |
|! purpose: | [[supplying the mind]] ➞ [[ensuring productive thinking]] |
|! aspect of: |  [[learning]] |

actions that acquaint the mind with a given:
* [[absorb|attention]] the content of consciousness
* proceed from the [[whole]]
* play around with materials
* imitate/simulate/recreate
* [[learn|learning]] all you can from a complicated example

Why is the first attempt the best attempt for a long time? Why does it take so long to equal the proficiency of the first?
* catch important [[fact]]s?

Performance standards for acquainting yourself with a given:
* How many times do you interact with something before it surprises you?
* How smoothly/continuously can you go from start to finish on your work with a thing?
|! genus:       | [[statement|proposition]] |
|! differentia: | purporting a certain quantitative relationship within a certain topology |

* [[group theory|mathematical group]]
* The [[unit]](s) within the bounds of one [[subset]] are also within xor outside of the bounds of another subset.
* Forms of [[proposition]]s vary according to how the [[unit]](s) within one [[subset]] stand in relation to the bounds of another subset, i.e. either included within or excluded from the [[predicate]].
* Membership is based on [[similarity]]. 
* military loyalty
* loyalty through admiration
* loyalty to a person because of their proven moral character
> The struggle to protect individual rights has nowhere so powerfully manifested itself as in the United States
[[methods for strings in Ruby]]

|! purpose                                |! method |! example            |! result |
| convert express to string     | .to_s      | "2" + 7.to_­s            | "27" |
| get max of array                   | .max     | [12, 47, 35].m­ax     | 47 |
| sort array                               | .sort     | [12, 47, 35].sort       | [12, 35, 47] |
| substitute string for string | .gsub | /replacethis/, "withthis" |
|! hierarchical classification:       | grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish the instrument used to accomplish an action |

>  Mr. Bibby wrote the letter //with a pencil//.
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of a [[computer program]] |
|! differentia: | code called by some other part of the program |

[[callback function (computing)]]

* [[interrupt handler]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between existents and the ranges of [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | existents in relation to the [[universal of inductive interest]] |
|! identification:           | [[regularity: apparently mutually exclusive]] |
|! demonstrates:         | factor and characteristic can exist separately |

mutual exclusion feeds [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior action: | comparison ← [[perception]] |
|! next:            | [[methods for experiments]] |
|! classification of next:| [[experimentation]] |

> where the required nature is constantly avoided, and excluded from attendance
~Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, II, 33, line 2

suggest that something is preventing the effect from occurring


two forms: [[workgroups]] vs [[domains|Microsoft networks: domains]]
part of speech
that expresses the action or state of being of some subject and therefore can be united with the subject through [[predication|epistemology: judgment]]

* ??? -- transitive vs. intransitive
* ??? -- regular vs. irregular
* tense
* mood -- the mode or manner in which the verb is used, such as:
** infinitive
** indicative
** subjunctive mood
** imperative
|! hierarchical classification: | [[controller (computing)]] ⊃ disk controller card |
|! differentia: | handles all [[RAID functions|Redundant Array of Independent Disks]]

Each array appears as a disk drive

But firmware upgrading is inconvenient, so RAID controller cards don't get updated as often as software RAID 

the administrative interface can be implemented in any of these ways:
* special [[utility|utility (computing)]] programs run as application software
* terminal emulator accesses on-board interface through a serial port
* something that's accessible only during power-up testing and looks like a BIOS
* [[principles of information security]]
* security tools
** [[network devices and technologies]]
** [[protocols for network security]]
** tools for segmenting:
*** [[DMZ|DMZ (computing)]] 
*** a [[firewall]] between WLAN and rest of network
** [[network implementation]]
** [[anti-virus software]]
** [[utilities for network security]]
* [[authentication]] and [[authorization]]
** [[user account]] -- [[user account policies]]
** [[groups|group (computing)]]
** [[managing user resources]] -- [[access control list]]
** [[domain controller]]
* [[cryptography]]
** [[public key certificate]]
* [[risk management]]
** [[types of controls to mitigate network security risk]]
** [[hardening|hardening (computing)]]
** [[asset identification]]
** [[risk and threat assessment]]
* malware, attacks, social engineering
** [[malware]]
** [[network attack]]
** [[social engineering]]
** [[wireless attack]]
** [[application attack]]

Ensure that your network is secure through appropriate technologies and policies.
Insure against exploits.
Secure your network against attacks.
Assure your stakeholders that the network will be secure. 
Guarantee a minimum level of availability.
|! hierarchical classification: | attributes of action |
|! aspect of:                          | [[physical system]] |

types of feedback:
* computational feedback
* physical/chemical feedback
* [[teleological feedback]]
** [[natural selection]]
** purposeful feedback
* [[computers]]
* [[mathematics]]
* [[language]]
* [[consciousness]]
* [[psyche]]
* [[communication]]
* [[the arts]]
[[Existence is the most basic fact]]
[[Existence exists]]
[[Existence is not an attribute]]
[[Consciousness presupposes existence]]
[[primacy of existence]]

|! hierarchical classification: | [[computer program]] ⊃ software technology |
|! differentia:           | separates [[desktop environment]] and [[application software]] from physical client |

Some people use "VDI" to refer to their solution for desktop virtualization though their solution does not actually feature a connection brokering service.

* [[remote desktop virtualization]] -- client need only do input/output
* [[application virtualization]] -- client gets told what to do for I/O, graphics drivers, hardware interfaces
* [[user virtualization]]
* [[local desktop virtualization]]

* [[thin client]] vs. [[thick client]]

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* [[operating system]]
* [[desktop environment]]
* [[application software]]
* [[client|client (computing)]]-[[server|server (computing)]]
case with curly:
switch ($i) {
case 0: echo "twas 0"; break;
case 1: echo "twas 1"; break;
default: echo "neither 0 nor 1";

case with syntactic sugar:
switch ($i):
case 0: echo "twas 0"; break;
case 1: echo "twas 1"; break;
default: echo "neither 0 nor 1";
don’t precede nouns but are used absolutely, i.e., separately 

That hat is //mine//, 
That computer is //yours//, 
That house is //ours//. 

The words mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours and theirs are known as absolute possessives. (This is because they stand alone and do not modify nouns.) 
belief based on implicitly asserting supremacy of consciousness over existence

subjectivist theism - "God exists because I can *feel* His love for me."

subjectivist atheism - "God doesn't exist because that would legitimize irrational, mystical outfits such as Christianity.  Can't do that."
mechanism for making use of a [[vulnerability|network security vulnerability]]

To prevent exploitation, you will need [[controls|types of controls to mitigate network security risk]]
[[potential]] that a [[vulnerability|network security vulnerability]] will be [[exploited|network security exploit]]

To reduce threat potential, you will need [[controls|types of controls to mitigate network security risk]]
What exists extends no further than it does.

What exists has a limited range of modification.

|! hierarchical classification:  | [[computer storage]] ⊃ [[secondary storage]] ⊃ electromechanical [[mass storage device]] |
|! differentia: | read/write heads on arms over [[disk platters|storage disk platter]] |

* [[disk platters|storage disk platter]]
** [[tracks|storage disk track]]
*** [[sectors|storage disk sector]]
*** unused space between sectors
* spindle
* [[hard disk read/write heads]]
* arm
* other components?

* tiny space between [[read/write heads|hard disk read/write heads]] and [[platter|storage disk platter]]

* [[hard disk drive performance]]
** Poor performance can be improved by [[adding hard disk drives]]
* surviving disk failure
** [[RAID system|Redundant Array of Independent Disks]]


schemes for addressing portions:
* [[Cylinder-Head-Sector]]
* [[Logical Block Addressing]], similar to [[linear addressing]]

the storage medium:
* some use magnetized material
* some uses optically interactive material -- constrains write time vs read time
the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning (semantics), while hiding away the [[implementation|implementation (computing)]] details
* sets
* [[concepts of numbers]]
* [[mathematical equation]]
* axiomatic set theory
* [[mathematical group]]
* [[mathematical field]]
* [[mathematical ring]]
* [[module over a ring]]
* [[manifold]]
forming and holding convictions through the application of [[logic]] to the [[fact]]s of reality, i.e. applying thought to [[evidence]]

not believing something [[just because other people believe|second-hand belief]]
[[Definitions|definition]] are contextual. As [[knowledge]] expands, a definition may need to be altered, i.e. when it no longer is adequate to specify the referents of the concept by its [[designation of fundamental characteristic(s)|fundamental characteristic]].  If you discover a new characteristic(s) which is more fundamental than those previously used to define the concept, you should expand the definition to denote the new context.  

example: Rand's example of the concept 'man' defined by a child then progressing through adulthood.

Definitions are not true if they are not contextually absolute.

* [[context-keeping]]
|! genus: | disciplines of study |
|! differentia: | the study of the ways words can be combined to form meaningful [[sentence]]s |

Grammar studies the possible relationships among words for the sake of improving reading and writing skills.

Every grammatical principle is an expression of some requirement for clarity by the human mind

[[English grammar]]

* orthography
* etymology
* syntax
* prosody -- manner of speaking and reading and the different kinds of verse
|''Description''|Provides a TiddlySpace version of the backstage and a homeLink macro|
|''Contributors''|Jon Lister, Jon Robson, Colm Britton|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig ImageMacroPlugin TiddlySpaceViewTypes|
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the tightest upper bound on the amount of information that can be reliably transmitted over a communications channel between two points.

system components having conductors and protocols:
* [[buses|bus (computing)]]
* [[datapaths|datapath (computing)]]
;7th [[Inductive Rule|Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
> If we can either find produced by nature, or produce designedly for ourselves, two instances which agree exactly in all but one particular, and differ in that one, its influence in producing the phenomenon, if it have any, must thereby be rendered sensible. If that particular be present in one instance and wanting altogether in the other, the production or non-production of the phenomenon will decide whether it be or be not the only cause: still more evidently, if it be present contrariwise in the two cases, and the effect be thereby reversed. But if its total presence or absence only produces a change in the degree or intensity of the phenomenon, we can then only conclude that it acts as a concurrent cause or condition with some other to be sought elsewhere. In nature, it is comparatively rare to find instances pointedly differing in one circumstance and agreeing in every other; but when we call experiment to our aid, it is easy to produce them; and this is, in fact, the grand application of experiments of enquiry in physical researches. They become more valuable, and their results clearer, in proportion as they possess this quality (of agreeing exactly in all their circumstances but one), since the question put to nature becomes thereby more pointed, and its answer more decisive.

If it is not clear what facts gave rise to the idea, traverse the levels of abstraction in the reverse order of what was needed to reach the idea.  The product of this process is a hierarchy needed to form the idea.  Since all knowledge terminates at the evidence of the senses, the "bottom" of this hierarchy must be the perceptual level and must be entity-based. If the "bottom" you've reached is not entity-based, you have not completed the reduction.

[[Knowledge is contextual|knowledge is contextual]].  Knowledge [[must be integrated|knowledge as a unity]] with other knowledge.  There are cognitive elements conditioning the acquisition, validity, or application of the item of knowledge. 

You need to use [[horizontal integration]]  as an additional check.
|! hierarchical classification:  | form of a [[computer network]] |
|! differentia:               | server-based for the benefit of Microsoft computers |

domains provide server-based (centralized) administration (through a database of users and [[groups|group (computing)]])
* User Manager for Domains manages Microsoft network domain users

domain user accounts:
# [[domain user account|user account]] creation
** server-based (not local) and therefore independent of machine
# login
** server-based authentication 
*** performed by primary [[domain controller]] or backup domain controller against a database of domain [[user accounts]]
*** therefore domains provide a higher level of security than workgroups 
** login script
** users get a [[user profile]] for every machine they log in to
# network resources are granted based on 
** domain [[user rights]]
*** to create, modify, delete user accounts
** domain [[user permissions]] regarding files and folders
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of a [[hard disk drive]] |

* concentric rings, aka "tracks"
|! hierarchical classification:       | components of a [[computer processor]] |
|! purpose: | holds what the processor may need speedy access to |

There are physical registers in the [[CPU|computer processor]]

types of registers:
* [[memory address register]]
* [[data register]]
** [[memory data register]]
* [[conditional register]]
* [[program counter]]

The term normally refers only to the group of registers that are directly encoded as part of an instruction, as defined by the instruction set. However, modern high performance [[CPUs|computer processor]] often have duplicates of these "architectural registers" in order to improve performance via register renaming, allowing parallel and speculative execution.

A common use is storing the memory address of the currently-executed instruction.  Almost all computers, load-store architecture or not, load data from a larger memory into registers where it is used for arithmetic, manipulated, or tested, by some machine instruction.  Such registers are (typically) addressed by mechanisms other than main memory and can be accessed more quickly. 

# [[reduce phenomena|analytical explanation]] to [[entities|entity]] and their actions/[[interaction]]s
# observe the entities and how they vary from one instance to another in certain respects
# abstract [[attribute]]s and actions
# [[measure|measurement]] variations in attributes/actions and employ curve-fitting
# identify quantitative [[relationship]]s among the relevant dimensions.
# describe and account for these regularities through physical laws
** explanatory equations
# [[unify|knowledge as a unity]] the [[scientific law]]s by means of quantitative abstractions
** "[[number|concepts of numbers]]"
** "force"
** "field"
** "[[conservation law]]"
** "[[symmetry law]]", "symmetry violation".
# [[explain|explanation]] the the laws of nature by means of abstractions, such as "interaction", "phase transition", "shell model", or other defining the [[causal mechanism]]

[[Conservation laws|conservation law]] are not caused by symmetries.
[[Symmetries|symmetry law]] merely describe conservation laws.

* [[hypothesis]]
* [[scientific law]]
* [[sequence of mathematical stages in science]]
* [[differentiating physics equations by level of abstraction]]
* [[continuities necessary for supporting an induction]]
* comparative, e.g. "double", "half"
* [[count]] of entities
** multitude of unspecified size -- e.g. few, many, all etc
* [[quantities]] of attributes
* [[concepts of numbers]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[programming language]]s subdivided by [[level of representation|representation of a computer program]] |
|! differentia: | statements, which require translation to a lower level |


* branching
* looping, e.g. GOTO

typical benefits:
* generally portable across multiple architectures

typical requirements:
* [[interpreter (computing]]
* [[compiler (computing)]]
The mean is taken according to the condition, that the sum of the squares of the errors of observation shall be the least possible which the law of the [[fact]]s allows.

* [[induction]]

key figures in the development of this method:
* William Whewell
|! hierarchical classification: | documentation of [[knowledge]] |
|! purpose: | [[achieving/maintaining focus]] ➞ [[supplying the mind]] ➞ [[ensuring productive thinking]] |

* outlining [[aspects of concepts]]
* network of related [[concept]]s
* sequences
** chronologies
* outlining [[system level]]s
* [[logic]] tree of if-then and/or
* table of [[characteristics]]
* [[definition]] tree, [[conceptual hierarchy]]

[[problem solving]]:
* conflict diagram
* [[teleological hierarchy]]
* thinking is goal-directed
** thinking deals with concretes by means of [[abstraction]]s
* thinking must involve [[mental integration]] of [[preconceptual data]]
* thinking must [[remain objective|objectivity]]; it must meet the the demands of [[hierarchical reduction]] and [[context-keeping]]
* abstract thought requires implicit knowledge of [[how a concept can be applied|applications of concepts]]
* to reach a [[conclusion]], thinking must summarize, [[simplify|thinking in essentials]], identify the [[basic]]s, the [[fundamental characteristic]]s, the essentials condensing a large body of knowledge for the sake of unit economy
[[information security: confidentiality]]
[[information security: integrity]]
[[information security: availability]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | types of [[files|computer file]] |
|! differentia: | contains a [[reference|reference (computing)]] to a file or directory in the form of a path |

affects pathname resolution, e.g.:
{{{/u/turbo/dlg/lev1   →   /u/turbo/dbopt/pgma/src/lev1}}}

either relative to another directory or absolute

does NOT share inode with original file;  if you move the file, the link breaks
The second condition or prerequisite for good discussion is that right motive must prevail. The purpose we have in carrying on our conversation must be to learn, and if persons get engaged in serious discussion of serious themes, then their aim must be to get at the truth, not to win the argument.
A policy edits the registry of a user's machine.
Such an edit can be forced on all by using a batch file, e.g. logon.bat

* local to machine vs global to organization?
** different policies/procedures for local vs global?
* new accounts require:
** naming policy
* password policies
** minimum password length
** minimum password age before password can be changed
** maximum password age before system forces a change to the password
** enforce password history
** account lockout policies
* account expiration?

specific considerations:
* disk space for Samba shares?
* centralized management of accounts?
** Kerberos policy for [[domain|Microsoft networks: domains]] users

|! hierarchical classification: | cognitive aspects of [[paragraph]]s |
|! differentia: | how the [[sentence]]s stand in relation to the [[topic sentence]] |
|! by means of: | appropriate [[transitional expressions]] |
|! purpose: | enable the mind to [[unite propositions|uniting propositions]] |

modes of discourse:
* narration
* exposition
* definition
* classification
* description
* process analysis
* persuasion

criteria for adequate development:
* describes the topic sentence
* explains the topic sentence
* supports the topic sentence

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* [[sentence]]
* [[paragraph]]
* [[topic sentence]]
* [[transitional expressions]]
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For existents, you must differentiate two or more [[existent]]s from other existents possessing the same [[commensurable characteristic]].  Two shades of blue are more [[similar|similarity]] to each other than to a shade of red.  The CCD is hue.  Other measurable characteristics, such as saturation and intensity, distinguish particular shades of blue from each other but do not distinguish blues from reds and greens.

Harry Binswanger points out that the CCD is implicit and that [[conceptual differentiation]] is made against some concept closer to the perceptual level.  You do NOT differentiate against sibling concepts.
|! hierarchical classification:       | [[actions of consciousness]] ⊃ awareness |
|! differentia: | of discriminated entities/attributes |
|! by means of: | patterns of changes to sense receptors integrated by the brain |

the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses

to apprehend means to mentally grasp something in reality

* perception of 
** [[entity]]
** [[attribute]] in a particular degree
** [[relationship]]
* discriminating objects
** visual discrimination -- integration of all contours into perception of shape/boundary
** tactile discrimination -- integration of positioned pressures into perception of texture
** -- integration over time despite changes
** -- integration between sensory modalities

positions on what's perceived:
* direct realism -- direct perception of an independent reality
* representationalism -- indirect perception of an independent reality
* idealism -- we see a screen
* [[integration of sense data|Ayn Rand's views on perception]]
* [[direct perception]] (David Kelley's views) vs [[sensationalism]]

* external -- physical response to environment by sense organs 
* internal -- experience of discriminated objects and their structures
* hierarchical
** integrations of sensational forms of awareness into percepts of concretes
** integrations of percepts into concepts

The perspectives are integrated into a coherent view by a basic metaphysical position, i.e. one of the following:
* [[primacy of existence]] -- realism in empiricism (G.E. Moore, Russell)
* primacy of consciousness -- [[idealism (Kant)|transcendental idealism]]
* representationalism
** [[Descartes' representationalism]]
** [[Locke's representationalism]]
|! hierarchical classification: | communication procedures ⊃ protocol suite |
|! differentia:              | authenticates sender of packets and/or [[encrypts|cryptography]] IP traffic |
|! by means of:          | supporting the [[Internet Key Exchange protocol]] |
|! purpose:                 | secure network layer communications between [[servers|server (computing)]] and [[clients|client (computing)]] |

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* Internet Protocol
* IP packet -- IP header, IP datagram
* [[authentication]]

* [[confidentiality|information security: confidentiality]] ⇐ Encapsulating Security Payload
* [[data integrity|information security: integrity]] 	⇐  Authentication Header, Encapsulating Security Payload
* [[access control]]
* non-repudiation ⇐ authentication of data source

* establish secure [[VPN|virtual private network]] communications ➞ get host on a secure network despite distance 
* secure a connection with a [[RADIUS|Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service]] server
** provide strong security between a RADIUS server and a [[domain controller]]
** secure traffic to a partner's organization's RADIUS servers
* secure client computers that roam between wireless access points of the same network

* red vs blue
* car vs bike

requires knowledge [[commensurable characteristic]], at least implicitly
Gravitation, acceleration of objects towards one another's density centers, is a [[fact]].  The law of gravitation is a [[scientific law]]
Einstein's GR is a theory of gravitation.

Evolution, generational change of a species over time, is a fact.
Darwin's natural selection is a theory of evolution.
This type of moderate realism views [[universals]] as a "stuff" inherent in things, i.e. everything is made out of //something//.

Moderate realism leads to the idea of science as approximation
* comparative:
** is [[similar to|similarity]]
** is different from X in a certain respect R
* hierarchical:
** is defined as
** is [[genus]] of
** is [[subcategory]] of
* attributed:
** has attribute / is attribute of
** has attribute value / is attribute value of
* compositional:
** has part / is part of
* entity - performs action:
** does / is done by
* entity - undergoes (i.e. system-level change caused by interaction):
* entity - does action to object:
** produces / is produced by
** [[change]]s something else / is changed by something else
** terminates a process / is terminated by
* entity - does action with object
* causal:
** causes / is caused by
** is a necessary condition for
** prohibits / is prohibited by
** increases intensity of measurable attribute
** decreases intensity of measurable attribute
* spatial
** is in / is outside of
** is on
** is next to
** is above / is below
* temporal
** is before / is after
* quantitative

related: [[ontological categories]]

thought about this on and off since 7th grade
|! aspect of: | [[causation]] |

will provide [[explanation]] for:
* why something has a certain [[attribute]]
* connection between entity-action and sequent [[change]] to the [[entity acted upon|patient existent]]
* etc.

Why does the cueball roll across the table when I strike it with the cuestick?
* physical interaction of cuestick and cueball
* laws of motion
* smooth surface of table minimizes friction
* roundness of cueball permits smooth rolling
* rigidity of the cueball: that the particles composing the cueball stick to one another and not to the table or the cuestick

elements common to ALL causal mechanisms for physical action:
* components/constituents
* combination/structure/arrangement
* action by existent(s)
* [[invariance]]

elements in some but not all causal mechanisms
* [[patient existent]]
* spatial location or region
* temporal moment or span
* [[manifold]]
* [[existent-path]]
* [[conservation|conserved quantity]] described by [[symmetry law]]
* human purpose

* [[causality]]
|! what is considered: | existent in relation to the [[universal of inductive interest]] |
|! identification:           | stages of development |
|! demonstrates that:  | the characteristic depends on a [[process]] |

feeds [[causal reasoning]]:
|! next: | [[experimentation]] |

e.g. from seed to growing plant

questions that lead to discovering these:
* To what sort of existent does the universal refer?
* If it's an entity, how does the entity in this particular instance vary over time?

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
[[Current Reality Tree]]
[[Evaporating Cloud]]
[[Future Reality Tree]]
[[Prerequisite Tree]]
[[Transition Tree]]
* count: magnitude of how many, through cardinals and ordinals
* magnitude of how much of a certain kind, through measurements of length, areas and angles
* ratios among magnitudes of different kinds, so that you can compare ratios of areas to ratios of lengths; Eudoxus
* [[infinity]] and infintessimals
* magnitude as such, through omitting unit; Dedikind and Cantor
After you have learned something, what should you be able to do with it?
* recall it
* name examples
* [[reduction of proposition to concretes that elucidate it]]
* connect it to other things you know
** [[horizontal integration]]
** integrate new observations and ideas into the existing structure of one's knowledge
** [[contextual substantiation]]
** if it's true and follows from other facts, [[demonstrate|demonstration]] it by more than one way
* [[answer questions|questioning]]
* use it to [[solve problems|problem solving]]
[[conditional statements in Ruby]]
[[loops in Ruby]]
> You sold the box //which you bought last year// to a man.
> The man //who bought it// paid in cash.

|! hierarchical classification: | combinations of [[concept]]s ⊃ [[foundational proposition]] for a subject of inquiry |
|! differentia:          | that is taken as a starting point for [[demonstrating|demonstration]] other propositions  |

Postulates are agreed upon by reasoners with the understanding that IF the postulate is assumed THEN certain consequences follow.  But if a different postulate is taken, different consequences follow.

what can be a postulate:
* [[mathematical postulate]]
** some types of [[geometric propositions|postulates in geometry]]
* [[invariant quantities|conserved quantity]], e.g. Maxwell's theory implies invariance of C with respect to observers
* [[hypothesis]]
* uncertain [[higher-level explanatory law]]s

Contrast postulates with:
* [[definition]]s, which describe concepts used to think about the subject, not the subject itself
* [[descriptions of particulars|descriptive statement about particular facts]], which are discovered, not assumed
* [[directly empirical scientific law]]s, which are already known and therefore do NOT qualify as [[assumption]]s
* [[axiom]]s, which have no alternatives as they are undeniable
>Relations, what: Besides the ideas, whether simple or complex, that the mind has of things as they are in themselves, there are others it gets from their comparison one with another. The understanding, in the consideration of anything, is not confined to that precise object: it can carry an idea as it were beyond itself, or at least look beyond it, to see how it stands in conformity to any other. When the mind so considers one thing, that it does as it were bring it to, and set it by another, and carries its view from one to the other- this is, as the words import, relation and respect; and the denominations given to positive things, intimating that respect, and serving as marks to lead the thoughts beyond the subject itself denominated to something distinct from it, are what we call relatives; and the things so brought together, related. 
~John Locke, __Essay Concerning Human Understanding__, //Book 2 - Of Ideas//, Chapter 25, paragraph 1
[subject does action] in case that [conditional clause]

[assertion], provided that [essential condition to be met]

[assertion] if [activating condition to be met]

[general assertion] unless [exception]
transformations of the plane that do not alter distances
kinds of name servers:
* [[resolving name server]]
* [[TLD name server|top level domain name server]]
* [[authoritative name server]]
>That causes will very frequently become obvious, by a mere arrangement of our [[fact]]s in the order of intensity in which some peculiar quality subsists; though not of necessity, because counteracting or modifying causes may be at the same time in action.
>For example: sound consists in impulses communicated to our ears by the air. If a series of impulses of equal force be communicated to it at equal intervals of time, at first in slow succession, and by degrees more and more rapidly, we hear at first a rattling noise, then a low murmur, and then a hum, which by degrees acquires the character of a musical note, rising higher and higher in acuteness, till its pitch becomes too high for the ear to follow. And from this correspondence between the pitch of the note and the rapidity of succession of the impulse, we conclude that our sensation of the different pitches of musical notes originates in the different rapidities with which their impulses are communicated to our ears.

[[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]

Also see [[Instances of Alliance or Union]] by which we prove that two things are actually a modification of something they have in common
something acted upon
something that [[change]]s in some respect because it was acted upon

for an advanced state of knowledge, the definition becomes:
:something in an interdependent relation with a [[causal|causality]] agent
|! hierarchical classification:       | [[integrations|gestalt]] of mental states |
|! differentia:     | a chain of mental states connected by mental actions |

This concept integrates:
* chain of [[genera|genus]]
* [[teleological chain]]
* [[trace of deliberate mental associations]]
* [[record of mental activities]]
* [[hierarchical roots of an idea|hierarchical reduction]]
* structure of prerequisites
* chain of furthered values
* chain of component/system

antecedent knowledge:
Since every mental process produces output after taking input, every output of the subconscious has a corresponding input state.  When you are able to integrate the output to the input, you can [[abstract|abstraction]] the executed order.  When you do this with each state of consciousness throughout a sequence of states, the succession of identifications builds a chain of topics connected by mental actions.  You will be able to identify both action and content at any point along the sequence.

[[building mental pathways]]

Lateral thinking involves switching to alternative pathways.
If you can't explain a new phenomenon by means of present [[knowledge]], search for additional entities, factors, conditions, etc.  Don't add new ones unless the [[fact]]s demand it.

Causal agents are [[not to be introduced|Newton's rule of causal sufficiency]] on top of an existing theory unless they explain previously unexplained phenomena and don't require too many conditionals to survive testing.  (Is plucking terms from the air and putting them into the action of general relativity respectable?)

You can't avoid presuppositions while investigating a question.  You must rely on them in order to make sense of the question.  What you must do is make sure that presuppositions are true.
>"There is a world external to the cognitive subject."
~//Mario Bunge//

Existence is prior to consciousness.

Things cannot be changed by whim, wish, feeling or prayer.

* other [[epistemic norms]]
* [[axiom]]s such as "[[Existence exists]]" and "[[Existence is identity]]"
i.e. reading to grasp how the author uses concepts

|! part of the process of: | [[reading for understanding]] |
|! prior actions:         | separate new from old ← [[reading for diction]] ← identify cognitively necessary segments |
|! next step:              | [[outline the work|summary sentence]] |

Take special note of [[examples|unit]] of [[term]]s given to you by the author.

Reach the [[conceptual nexus of knowledge]].

Formulate a supplemental definition for any technical concept unclear to you.
# Consider each [[proposition]] as a unit of thought.
# Look at how propositions apply the concept
# [[Abstract|abstraction]] characteristics.
# Identify the [[fundamental characteristic]].
# Delimit the set of applicable [[unit]]s
# Recognize how each characteristic explained by the fundamental applies to each example throughout that set.
Applications that need access to data that is in memory call the data by [[page (computing)]]. If an application calls a page and it is in the RAM, then a "page in" occurs. 

contrast with [[page out]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | existent(s) in relation to the [[universal of inductive interest]] |
|! identification:           | time measurement |

e.g. the course of a moving body and regular times
e.g. relative speed of transmission
while loop:
while (somecomparisonistrue) {

conditional while loop with syntactic sugar:
while (somethingistrue):

conditional do loop:
do {
while (somecondition);

for loop:
for ($i=0; $i < notperformed; $i++) {
* narrower "range" of units:
** [[subset]]
* [[conceptual identification]] 
** [[Categorize|categorization]] an existent that is part of the present situation and distinguish the situation from the spontaneously linked [[concept]].
** specify an aspect
* [[abstraction from abstractions]]
* View the reality around you in terms of the [[abstraction]]s of interest.
* Draw an analogy
* Evaluate and fine-tune a [[functional system]]
> any process of establishing an idea's relationship to reality, whether deductive reasoning, [[inductive reasoning|Leonard Peikoff and David Harriman -- views on induction]], or perceptual self-evidence.
~Leonard Peikoff, OPAR

> "Validation" in the broad sense includes any process of relating mental contents to the facts of reality. Direct perception, the method of validating axioms, is one such process. "Proof" designates another type of validation. Proof is the process of deriving a conclusion logically from antecedent knowledge. 
~Leonard Peikoff, ???

on the validation of [[principle]]s:
>  ... what you have to do in order to validate the virtue of honesty. [In a real cognitive situation: Y]ou have to  pick certain elements out of a vast, complicated context.  You have to delimit the aspect under consideration.  You have the necessity of integration facing you in dozens of directions at the same time.  You have all kinds of complexities that would make your head spin to try to know what you now, and what it rests on, and what context you are using and so on.
~LP, ???
for creating objects with properties:
{{{public function __construct($}}}//property1// , $//property2// ) {
  {{{$this->}}}//property1// {{{ = $}}}//property1//;
  {{{$this->}}}//property2// {{{ = $}}}//property2//;

that it's important to test information they're given
that if they see how the best examples of reasoning worked, they don't have to reinvent it
>"Even if there is only one possible unified [[theory]], it is just a set of rules and [[equation]]s. What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? The usual approach of science of constructing a mathematical model cannot answer the questions of why there should be a universe for the model to describe. Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing?"
Stephen W. Hawking, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, Bantam, NY, 1988, p 174. 
a storage location that contains some known or unknown quantity or information, a value
an associated symbolic name (an identifier)

* [[class variable]]
* [[instance variable]]
Click the "new tiddler" button towards the top right of the screen to write something in your space. You'll need to give it a title, some content and, optionally, some tags that will help you identify it later.

!Stuck for ideas?
Not sure what to write about? Not sure what to keep in your space? Other people use ~TiddlySpace for almost anything. How about some of the following:

* [[Save interesting sites|]], images or articles from around the web so that you can refer back to them.
* [[Record your family tree|]], store notes on long lost relatives or ancestors and map their relationship to you.
* [[Make up a pocketbook|]] to store some useful information in, then print it out, [[fold it up|]], and take it with you.
* [[Plan your holiday|]], record where you're planning to go, note down places of interest and refer back to it later.
* [[Create a mindmap|]] to visualise your inner thoughts and see how they relate to each other.
* [[Set up a questionnaire|]] and get all your friends to answer it.

If you don't like any of those ideas, you can still use this space directly to keep notes and link them together, make a todo list and keep track of everything you're doing, or any one of a hundred million other things.

Still stuck? Check out the @featured space for more suggestions.

You can also [[socialise with others|How to socialise]].
[[application-layer network protocols]]:
share resources with other such processes

runs in [[user space]] on top of a single kernel thread

resources that can be shared:
* [[address space]]
<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="78 222 60 60" 
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 107.92718 244.14815 L 86.651474 222.89253 L 78.85206 230.69925 L 100.120415 251.9476 L 78.774 273.27396 
		L 86.57342 281.08075 L 107.927216 259.74707 L 129.39981 281.19946 L 137.19922 273.39267 L 115.73397 251.94763 
		L 137.121155 230.58054 L 129.32175 222.77374 Z" fill="black" class="glyph"/>
approach to observables:
* Absorb or aspects?
* Perceive or interpret?

direct your mind, i.e. [[domain of thought]]:
* What are you trying to find?
* Should the most recent product be shelved or be used as input?

acquire more information:
* What's considered obvious?
* What [[constrains the output|system constraint]]?  What constrains //that//?
* What do you need to know before you can have the concept?

evaluate your content:
* What is [[known|knowledge]]? What is conjecture?  What is [[hypothesis]]?
* What's missing or minimal? change [[approach|approaches to thinking]]
* What's unclear?

[[changing mental contents]]
Charles Alexander Mercier //On Causation//
* [[subsumption]] under a more general law
* [[concurrent variation]] between effect and factor
* [[coincidence in space or time]] of effect and factor
* proper integration
* misintegration
* misintegration at the expense of concretes
* non-integration
* disintegration

[[Leonard Peikoff's DIM hypothesis]]
|! hierarchical classification: | fixed and finite rates constraining computer performance |
|! differentia:   | physically determined rate at which a CPU processes instructions |
|! aspect of:   | [[computer processor]] |

Since action cannot be stored, more processing power means a new chip, which is expensive.

the need to do research:
* If the CPU is soldered in place, forget about upgrade
* If it's socketed, look for a CPU of similar type possessing a higher clock speed
* If you want to do [[symmetric multiprocessing]], you'll need a motherboard that supports that.
|! hierarchical classification: | fallacies |
attempting to [[deduce|deduction]] [[fact]]s from [[abstraction]]s
|! hierarchical classification: | condition of a [[process|process (computing)]] |
|! differentia:  | the [[computer program]] terminates unexpectedly |

* [[system crash]]
|''Description''|Mimics allTags macro to provide ways of creating lists grouping tiddlers by any field|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
{{{<<groupBy tags>>}}}
mimics allTags macro

{{{<<groupBy server.bag>>}}}
groups by the server.bag field (this version contains TiddlySpace specific code for turning a bag into a space name)

{{{groupBy modified dateFormat:"YYYY"}}}
group tiddlers by year.

{{{<<groupBy tags exclude:excludeLists exclude:systemConfig>>}}}
group tiddlers by tag but exclude the tags with values excludeLists and systemConfig

Within that group you can also exclude things by filter
{{{groupBy modifier filter:[tag[film]]}}}
will group tiddlers tagged with film by modifier.
(function($) {
var taglocale = config.views.wikified.tag;
var macro = config.macros.groupBy = {
	locale: {
		tooltip: "all tiddlers in group %0",
		noTiddlers: "no tiddlers",
		openAllText: taglocale.openAllText,
		openAllTooltip: taglocale.openAllTooltip,
		openTiddler: "open tiddler with title %0"
	morpher: {
		// TODO: note currently the following 2 morphers are TiddlySpace specific and probably should be in separate plugin
		"server.workspace": function(value, options) {
			return macro.morpher["server.bag"](value.replace("bags/", "").replace("recipes/", ""));
		"server.bag": function(value, options) {
			if(typeof(value) !== "string") {
				return false;
			} else if(value.indexOf("_public") === -1 && value.indexOf("_private") === -1) {
				value = "*%0".format(value); // add star for non-space bags.
			return value.replace("_public", "").replace("_private", "");
		created: function(value, options) {
			return value.formatString(options.dateFormat || "DD MMM YYYY");
		modified: function(value, options) {
			return macro.morpher.created(value, options);

	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString) {
		var field = params[0] || "server.workspace";
		var dateFormat = params[1] || "DD MMM YYYY";
		var container = $("<div />").attr("macroName", macroName).addClass("groupBy").
			attr("refresh", "macro").attr("fieldName", field).
			attr("paramString", paramString).
			attr("dateFormat", dateFormat).appendTo(place)[0];
	isTypeArray: function(value) {
		var valueType = typeof value;
		if(valueType === "object" && typeof value.length === "number" &&
			!(value.propertyIsEnumerable("length")) &&
			typeof value.splice === "function") { //is Array
			return true;
		} else {
			return false;
	_onClickGroup: function(ev, options) {
		var i, target =, locale = macro.locale;
		var tiddlers = $(target).closest(".templateContainer").data("tiddlers");
		var popup = $(Popup.create(target)).addClass("taggedTiddlerList")[0];
		var value = $(target).attr("value");
		var openAll = createTiddlyButton($("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0],
			locale.openAllText.format(value), locale.openAllTooltip);
		$(openAll).click(function(ev) {
			story.displayTiddlers(, tiddlers);
			return false;
		var listBreak = $("<li />").addClass("listBreak").html("<div />").appendTo(popup);
		for(i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var item = $("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0];
			var template = store.getTiddlerText(options.template) || macro.template;
			wikify(template, item, null, tiddlers[i]);
		$(createTiddlyLink($("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0], value, false)).
		return false;
	_refresh: function(container, tiddlers, options) {
		var totalGroups = 0, locale = macro.locale, i, j;
		var excludeValues = options.exclude;
		var values = {}, value_ids = [];
		var field = options.field;
		var morpher = macro.morpher[field] || function(value) {
			return value;
		for(i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var value = tiddler[field] || tiddler.fields[field];
			value = macro.isTypeArray(value) ? value : [ value ];
			for(j = 0; j < value.length; j++) {
				var v = morpher(value[j], options);
				if(v && $.inArray(v, excludeValues) === -1) {
					totalGroups += 1;
					if(!values[v]) {
						values[v] = [];
		var ul = $("<ul />").appendTo(container)[0];
		if(totalGroups === 0) {
			$("<li />").addClass("listTitle").text(locale.noTiddlers);
		value_ids = value_ids.sort();
		var groupTemplate = store.getTiddlerText(options.groupTemplate);
		var onClick = function(ev) {
			macro._onClickGroup(ev, options);
		for(i = 0; i < value_ids.length; i++) {
			var title = value_ids[i];
			var info = getTiddlyLinkInfo(title);
			tiddlers = values[title];
			var btn = createTiddlyButton($("<li />").appendTo(ul)[0],
				"%0 (%1)".format(title, tiddlers.length), locale.tooltip.format(title), null, info.classes);
			if(groupTemplate) {
				wikify(groupTemplate, btn, null, tiddlers[0]);
			$(btn).click(onClick).attr("value", title).attr("refresh", "link").attr("tiddlyLink", title);
			$(btn).addClass("templateContainer").data("tiddlers", tiddlers);
	refresh: function(container) {
		container = $(container).empty();
		var paramString = container.attr("paramString");
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var options = { field: container.attr("fieldName"), dateFormat: container.attr("dateFormat"), exclude: args.exclude || [],
			template: args.template ? args.template[0] : false, groupTemplate: args.groupTemplate ? args.groupTemplate[0] : "" };
		var tiddlers = args.filter ? store.filterTiddlers(args.filter[0]) : store.getTiddlers("title");
		macro._refresh(container, tiddlers, options);
	template: "<<view title link>>"

a logical source on which many other [[proposition]]s and chains of reasoning depend, so that it forms the [[basis|foundational proposition]] of many subordinate propositions

|! hierarchical classification: | [[generalization]] ⊃ [[proposition]] |
|! fundamental characteristic: | logically fundamental with respect to other [[proposition]]s and to chains of reasoning |
|! role in thinking: | an abstract frame of reference |
|! purpose:         | provide considerations for guiding long-range action  |
|! by means of:  | applying a [[concept]] to a rule of action |

|! prior contents: | [[proposition]] ← [[concept]] |
|! prior actions: | [[induction]] ← [[judgment|epistemology: judgment]] ← conceptual identification ← [[conceptualization]] |

antecedent knowledge for [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]]:
* [[causality]] in the process of life
* [[knowledge is hierarchical|hierarchy of knowledge]]
* man has to act long-range; man must consider the consequences of his actions on his life
* man's consciousness is [[conceptual|concept]] and thus capable of projecting long-term consequences

* [[how to ascend to a principle]] -- "You reach them by induction"
* [[Leonard Peikoff's method for identifying principles]] -- applies primarily to the principle behind what someone is claiming
* [[functions of principles]]
* [[validating principles]]
* the use of a principle consists in deductive application of the induced generalization

* [[fundamental characteristic]]

views on principels:
* [[Leonard Peikoff's views on principles]]
* [[Leonard Peikoff's examples of principles]]
* [[Harry Binswanger's views on principles]]
* the view of principles as commandments
* the view of principles as ad hoc rules of thumb
* the view of principles as cognitive maps
when everything known supports it 
but it's known 
* that there is more to learn
* that what needs to be learned can't even be speculated because current body of knowledge has been exhausted
* that the method is right

When you say "in the present context of knowledge", you are telling the listener/reader that a [[proposition]] is not [[self-evident]] or perceptual. You are emphasizing that knowledge was accumulated and that the body of knowledge may be incomplete.   

"in the present context" does NOT mean the opposite is [[possible]], or that you have reason to doubt it

intellectual honesty

declares you will entertain evidence for further [[integration|mental integration]]

* [[knowledge]]
>"‎I go along with you in your use of the word induction only I fear to a certain extent -- I do not myself like to oppose it to or contrast it with either observation or pure reason.  Induction according to me and Aristotle (admire my modesty) is the whole process by which the intellect gets a general principle from observing particulars or individuals and in that process both observation and pure reason have a part -- when observation has collected the [[fact]]s, abstraction ... seizes on the law or principle and then the inductive process is complete in all its parts."
~//Richard Jones to William Whewell//
association of sovereign political units that, by treaty, have delegated certain of their competences (or powers) to common institutions, in order to coordinate their policies in a number of areas, without constituting a new state on top of the member states

e.g. war-making power delegated to a national legislature
|! invoked when: | intentional state of consciousness |

# Explicitly state the intention, i.e. what you are attempting to bring about.
# loop of revision: 
** Bring to mind concretes.
** Measure the description against the concretes.
** Revise intention for clarity.
# Explicitly identify what would have to be true for the statement to be valid.
# For each seemingly true item:
** How do you know it is true?  
** If you don't know how to [[validate|validation]] a specific [[proposition]], write a [[question]] that asks whether the least certain part of a [[proposition]] is true.
** For [[validated|validation]] [[proposition]]s, return to 3 until reach terminus (such as perceptually self-evident propositions, questions requiring additional investigation, etc.)
# Identify mental actions that will accomplish the conditions identified as necessary.
The concept of "random" has a mathematical meaning.  Metaphysically, nothing is "random"

A [[metaphysically given]] process is "random" when it is not possible to deterministically [[predict|prediction]] the outcome based on available information.

A random process is a repeating process whose outcomes follow no describable deterministic pattern, but follow a [[probability distribution]] such that the relative [[probability]] of the [[occurrence]] of each outcome can be approximated or calculated because of the finite cardinality of the set of [[possible]] outcomes.
|! hierarchical classification:  | physical regions of [[main memory]] ⊃ transparent [[buffer|data buffer]] |
|! differentia: | disk-backed pages kept in [[main memory]] (RAM) by the [[operating system]] |

; purpose: 
quicker access than [[paging out|paging (computing)]] 
: Since non-dirty pages in the page cache have identical copies in secondary storage (e.g. hard disk, Flash disk), discarding and re-using cache space is much quicker than [[paging out|page out]] application memory, and is often preferred

Page cache is typically implemented in [[kernel]]s with the [[paging|paging (computing)]] [[memory management]], and is completely transparent to applications. All memory that is not directly allocated to applications is usually utilized for page cache. 
>"This table I call the Table of Essence and Presence."
~Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, 1620

1. The rays of the sun, especially in summer and at noon.
2. The rays of the sun reflected and condensed, as between mountains, or on walls, and most of all in burning glasses and mirrors.
3. Fiery meteors.
4. Burning thunderbolts.
5. Eruptions of flame from the cavities of mountains.
6. All flame.
7. Ignited solids.
8. Natural warm baths.
9. Liquids boiling or heated.
10. Hot vapors and fumes, and the air itself, which conceives the most powerful and glowing heat if confined, as in reverbatory furnaces.
11. Certain seasons that are fine and cloudless by the constitution of the air itself, without regard to the time of year.
12. Air confined and underground in some caverns, especially in winter.
13. All villous substances, as wool, skins of animals, and down of birds, have heat.
14. All bodies, whether solid or liquid, whether dense or rare (as the air itself is), held for a time near the fire.
15. Sparks struck from flint and steel by strong percussion.
16. All bodies rubbed violently, as stone, wood, cloth, etc., insomuch that poles and axles of wheels sometimes catch fire; and the way they kindled fire in the West Indies was by attrition.
17. Green and moist vegetables confined and bruised together, as roses packed in baskets; insomuch that hay, if damp, when stacked, often catches fire.
18. Quicklime sprinkled with water.
19. Iron, when first dissolved by strong waters in glass, and that without being put near the fire. And in like manner tin, etc., but not with equal intensity.
20. Animals, especially and at all times internally; though in insects the heat is not perceptible to the touch by reason of the smallness of their size.
21. Horse dung and like excrements of animals, when fresh.
22. Strong oil of sulphur and of vitriol has the effect of heat in burning linen.
23. Oil of marjoram and similar oils have the effect of heat in burning the bones of the teeth.
24. Strong and well rectified spirit of wine has the effect of heat, insomuch that the white of an egg being put into it hardens and whitens almost as if it were boiled, and bread thrown in becomes dry and crusted like toast.
25. Aromatic and hot herbs, as dracunculus, nasturtium vetus, etc., although not warm to the hand (either whole or in powder), yet to the tongue and palate, being a little masticated, they feel hot and burning.
26. Strong vinegar, and all acids, on all parts of the body where there is no epidermis, as the eye, tongue, or on any part when wounded and laid bare of the skin, produce a pain but little differing from that which is created by heat.
27. Even keen and intense cold produces a kind of sensation of burning: "Nec Boreæ penetrabile frigus adurit." ("Nor burns the sharp cold of the northern blast.")
28. Other instances.
I am oblivious to your misunderstandings.  Please be crystal clear with me about how you interpret what I say and do.  

I tend to grasp situations in terms of systems of interacting components demanding action.  If that isn't what's needed, convey to me what you do need.

By default, I catch *only* content.  Not tone.  Not subtext.  Not function.  I am capable of catching those things.  But only if I "flip a switch" beforehand.  Before it occurs to me to flip that switch, I need information telling me that it's necessary.  So if I seem oblivious, don't take it personally.  I just need information.

I don't mind changes to my environment, but I need time for them to sink in.  If we're going to change direction a lot, let me know ahead of time.

that the continued existence of any [[living organism]] requires its successful performance of certain kinds of [[self-generated action]] attaining specific ends

that organism's existence is conditional upon its actions in the face of the fundamental alternative of [[life]] and death

survival is a positive achievement that must be continuously won by the organism -- or the organism dies
The actions by which an organism wins that achievement are [[teleological|teleological action]]

|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental processes]] ⊃ [[differentiation]] |
|! by means of: | [[distinguishing characteristic(s)]] |
|! purpose:        | [[classification]] |
|! a step in the process of:    | [[concept-formation]] |
|! sequence of prior actions: | [[Conceptual Common Denominator]] ← [[unit]]s |
|! next step: | apply [[the rule of fundamentality|fundamental characteristic]] |

applications in [[causal reasoning]]: 
* [[Herschel's rule for differentiation]]
* [[identifying factors: only difference]]
* [[objectivity]]
* examining reasoning:
** [[logic]]
** [[standards/criteria|epistemology: standards/criteria]]
** [[signs of epistemological trouble]]
* examining [[belief]]s:
** [[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]

* source IP address
* destination IP address
* service/port
* action

* untrusted
* trusted
Uncertain [[proposition]]s are deemed "[[possible]]" until [[sufficient|sufficiency]] information enables conscientious cognitive machinery (i.e. that considers all the [[evidence]], not ignoring possible counter-examples) to reproduce the proposition by valid means and remove all reasonable doubt.
|! hierarchical classification: | computer resources ⊃ form of [[secondary storage]] |
|! differentia: | supports a protocol for bulk transfers of information over hardware interfaces |
|! purpose: | read/write data |

* [[hard disk drive]]
* Solid State Drive
* flash memory (e.g. USB flash drives or USB tokens)

physical components:
* storage media
* intelligent hardware that knows how to access the contents of the storage media, such as:
** microcontroller
** microprocessor

supports these interfaces:
* USB device interface to enable device to communicate with computer/hub
* interface between storage media and intelligent hardware of device, such as:
** Serial Peripheral Interface for flash memory card reader/writer
** MultiMediaCard bus
** SD-card bus
** bus derived from ATA interface
** PC-card bus

* USB protocols common to all USB devices
* mass storage protocols appropriate to the media and interface

organizing data:
* partitions -- partioning makes drive visible to [[operating system]]
* [[file system]]

* If the USB device firmware needs to create, read, or write to files and directories on its own (not via the USB interface), then the USB device firmware must also support a file system.

methods for allocating space:
* [[Logical Volume Management]]
|! hierarchical classification: | network protocols |
|! differentia: | applies cryptographic methods |
|! purpose:    | computer security |

* [[Secure Sockets Layer]]
* [[Transport Layer Security]]
a piece of software that determines
* how much time each [[computer program]] will spend executing, and
* in which order execution control should be passed to programs

see [[scheduling (computing)]]
|! purpose: | addressing portions of a [[hard disk drive]] |
|! scheme:     | give a number to each block of a [[hard disk drive]] |

better than [[CHS|Cylinder-Head-Sector]] addressing because not susceptible to the problems associated with changing a particular CHS numbering scheme in a particular system
|! prior action: | [[abstraction]] of factor |

instances sharing a common factor:
* [[factor coexists with effect|regularity: coexistence with effect]]
* [[factor covaries with predicate|regularity: covariation]]
* [[factor disappears|regularity: disappearance]]
* [[factor that the predicate follows|regularity: sequence]]

* [[factor apparently mutually exclusive with predicate|regularity: apparently mutually exclusive]]
>"not susceptible of [[proof]] by the teacher, yet ignorance of it does not constitute a total ban on the progress on the part of the pupil: one which the pupil must know if he is to learn anything whatever"
~//Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, book 1, chapter 2//

Axioms are [[proposed|proposition]] by applying a set of fundamental [[concept]]s to a particular subject. 

Axioms are [[foundational proposition]]s.  Like all [[basic truth]]s, they are [[unprovable]] from within the [[system of abstract thought]] in which they appear.  However, unlike other unprovables, axioms are [[certain|certainty]].  Consider the axioms of existence.  "[[Existence exists]]" cannot be denied without assuming it.  Neither can the axiom "[[Existence is identity]]".  They MUST be true.

Contrast axioms against:
* [[postulate]]s, which can have alternatives
* [[hypotheses|hypothesis]], which are [[uncertain|uncertain propositions]]

* [[a priori vs a posteriori]]
* [[axiomatic concepts]]

A mixture is a [[collection]] of different [[existent]]s
|! purpose: | [[information security: confidentiality]] |

elements of encryption/decryption:
* [[cipher]]
* [[key|key (cryptography)]]

* [[cryptographic protocols]]
* cryptographic systems
** [[symmetric-key cryptography]]
** [[public-key cryptography]]
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of a [[computer program]] ⊃ named components of source code ⊃ [[function (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | load and execute a new [[child process|child process (computing)]] |

The current [[process|process (computing)]] may wait for the child to terminate or may continue to execute asynchronously. Creating a new subprocess requires enough memory in which both the child process and the current program can execute.
At any moment of consciousness, there is a window of opportunity for mentally acting in regard to [[contents of consciousness]].

Conscious activities are supported by [[mental pathway]]s and [[standing orders for the subconscious]].

aspects to manage:
* [[contents of consciousness]]
* activities
** unification
** identify intentions and teleological chain(s)
** [[adjust activity in accordance with a purpose|focus]]
** preserve unity of purpose, e.g. [[record of mental activities]]
** identify prerequisites 
* [[standing orders for the subconscious]], which can encourage growth of new [[mental pathway]]s
* [[skill acquisition]]
** [[measurements of human mental ability]]

constraint(s): working memory capacity is constrained by volatility of working memory

* [[managing contents of consciousness]]
* [[mentally preparing for the day]]

situation-specific processes:
* [[processing real-time experience]]
* [[contextual substantiation]] of a thought


the exact wording of what's said
the responses I have to what's said

more abstractly:
a set of perceptual-concretes
my unification of the information
my automatic response to my unification
window of opportunity for directing further mental activity

from perceiving a verbal expression to grasping its meaning
from processing meaning to directing the generation of new mental contents
from directed generation of contents to mental contents
from mental contents to a unity

similar informational states

summoning the mental powers needed to properly respond to the perceptual concretes, proper with respect to the nature of the things

For a given thought, what context/structure/integration would lead one directly to the thought?

Content and action are aspects of an undivided whole.  One must hold as content the information concerning the undivided whole relevant to your goal(s).

For an action to be controllled, the mind must be absolutely present and concentrated on doing the action, excluding interference.

mentally affirm what is taking place without interference from conceptual identification

to fix thoughts on a given point
to develop an informational state without getting distracted

exercise: imagine the absence of an object in such a manner that the surrounding environment of the object makes the object's existence obvious and memorable
purpose: aid memory of object's location

exercise: repeat 1 in one's mind 3 times, 1 second apart
purpose: develop attention
|! hierarchical classification: | [[variable|variable (computing)]] defined in a [[class (computing]] (i.e. a member variable) |
|! differentia: |  for which each [[object|object (computing)]] of the class has a separate copy, or [[instance|instance (computing)]] |
a portion of [[computer memory]] being used
recognizes when my feelings are based on serious values and proceeds to handle those feelings respectfully

doesn't try to evade her own feelings
* [[domain of thought]] -- what you focus your mind on because of preliminary thinking, explicit identification of which helps achieve clarity
* [[epistemic field]] -- knowledge one has about the domain
* [[content space]] -- how thought can vary in content, knowledge of which helps you decide what needs to be thought through next

ways of integrating what there is to thinking:
* [[thinking as asking questions]]
* [[thinking as a process]]
** [[thinking as computational]]
** [[changing mental contents]]

regulating thinking:
* [[achieving/maintaining focus]]
* [[ensuring productive thinking]]
* [[framing a domain of thought]]
* [[approaches to thinking]]

The freedom to leave the country shall not be abridged unless pursuant to a lawful warrant issued upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.
[[operating system]] hardening
* [[authentication]]
* patches

network hardening
* closing ports
* [[access control list]]
* rules governing [[firewall]] behavior
|! hierarchical classification: | [[physical system]] |
|! differentia:                         | that are designed to produce output for satisfying the needs of sentients |

* throughput
* inventory
* operating expenses
|! linguistic element |! mental object|! mental process|
| word              | [[unit]] or [[concept]] | [[concept-formation]]           |
| [[phrase]]       | [[subset]] | narrow the set of considered existents |
| verb phrase   | [[predication]] | apply [[ontological categories]]         |
| [[sentence]]   | [[proposition]] | [[judgment|epistemology: judgment]] |
| [[paragraph]] | [[uniting propositions]] | [[horizontal integration]]       |
Thales -- knowledge begins with observation

Aristotle -- you must [[not contradict|the laws of logic]] yourself

Bacon -- [[integrate|Bacon on Prerogative Instances]] what you [[accumulate|Bacon's Tables]]

* form [[concept]]s in proper [[hierarchical relationship|hierarchy of knowledge]] 
* apply [[logic]] to the facts gained through [[conceptualized|conceptualization]] experience
* respect full [[context]]
They think you file your grasp of a perceived exisent in only one conceptual folder:
> the tentative and gradated, gray-shaded linking of an entity or a situation to a prior category in one's own mind
~//Surfaces and Essences//, "Prologue: Analogy as the Core of Cognition", section: "The Nature of Categorization", pg. 14

Categorization of an observed existent enables an aspect of the integrated [[unit]]s to become available for thought:
>some facet of a currently active concept is lifted out of dormancy and brought to one's attention
~section: "The Rapid Inferences that Categories provide", pg. 20

[[Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking]]

See also:
* [[category]]
* [[categorization]]
* [[concept]]
* [[concept-formation]]
connected group of epistemic objects (e.g. [[concept]]s, [[proposition]]s, etc.) in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan

* [[axiomatic system]]
* [[scientific|scientific method]] [[theory]]

* [[unity]]
* direction, in terms of necessary conclusions

* idea can be twisted in a different direction, necessitating that other ideas get twisted in a complementary direction
* idea can be switched for another, necessitating changes with other ideas
how to make a [[unity]] accessible from many directions:
* [[Predicate|predicate]] the unity as much as possible.
* Identify known [[characteristics]] of a class of [[existent]]s and identify the [[fundamental characteristic]].
* Collect the [[term]]s in use by specialists and [[abstract|abstraction]] each term's respective [[category|ontological categories]].
* Collect known applications.
* Identify what elements in the [[system]] could affect the thing or process.
* bytes received/sent
* interface counts and rates
** collisions
** transmit/receive errors
|! prior action: | [[experimentation]] |

> Causal connection may be established by the discovery of concurrent and proportional variation of action and effect; and is the more warrantable the closer the concurrence and the more exact the proportion. 
> This is a very far-reaching method, and though its employment is seldom in comparison with some of the other methods, it gives results when their employment is impracticable. In some cases, as will be seen in the examples adduced hereunder, it is impossible to trace any action upon the thing changed, but the concurrent and proportional variation of the action and the change impels us irresistibly to conclude a causal connection between them. 
> The method, as stated above, replaces Mill's Method of [[Concomitant Variation]]s, which, as he states it, is manifestly false.

~Charles Arthur Mercier, _On Causation and Causality_

> The most faimiliar instance is the concurrent and proportional variation between the turning of a tap and the flow of water or the size of a gas flame. As the tap is turned more and more towards the straight position, so, concurrently and proportionally, does the flow of water increase in volume or the flame increase in size. As the tap is turned more and more towards the cross position, so, concurrently and proportionally, does the flow of water or the size of the flame diminish. The variation is not exactly proportional throughout the whole range. When the tap is near the straight position, the additional effect produced by additional alteration is less than when it is near the cross position; and when it is straight, or nearly straight, slight alterations of positions have no answering alterations in the flame or the stream of water; but still, on the whole, the variation in the size of the flame or the stream are so closely concurrent with the variations in the position of the tap, and generally observe so strict a proportion, that a bystander who had never before seen a tap or a gas flame would be compelled to presume the causal connection, and would feel his conclusion the more inescapable, the more often he saw the experiment repeated. Still more assured would his certainty become when he found that the more rapid or the slower was the action, the more rapid or the slower was the effect, and that any interruption of the one was attended by the interruption of the other. Concurrence so close, and generally so closely proportional, would carry to his mind the irresistible conviction of causal connection. It is true that in this case our conclusion is partly derived by the Method of Instant Sequence, but, as will be more fully shown hereafter, we usually employ more than one method. 
>The great importance of the method of concurrent and proportional variation is that it can be applied when no other method of ascertaining causation is applicable, when experimentation is impossible, and even when the means by which the effect is produced are beyond our knowledge and beyond conjecture. It is by this method that a causal connection has been established beyond all doubt between spots in the sun and magnetic storms on the earth, a causal connection that could not possibly have been established in any other way.
>"If in the context of your consciousness a [[proposition]] is [[arbitrary]] (lacks logical basis for affirmation or denial), then you are ignorant of the proposition's [[truth]] or falsity."
~Dave Odden
[[arrays in PHP]]
* users
* groups
unites axiomatic set theory, [[group theory|mathematical group]], and [[field theory|mathematical field]]
It is impossible to make them happy all of the time.

It is impossible to know all the things that make them happy.
Phenomenon P varies according to known factors F1, F2, etc.

Quantity of phenomenon P varies according to a mathematical relationship involving 
Q1, ..., Qn
F1 contributes to quantity Q1
F2 contributes to quantity Q2
Fn contributes to quantity Qn
|! hierarchical classification: | mental methods |
|! differentia: | the art of non-contradictory ([[integrative|mental integration]]) identification |
|! purpose:    | identify facts ➞ put man in touch with reality |
|! aspect of:  | [[reason]] |

antecedent knowledge:
* errors
* distinction between phainomena and endoxa (reasoned opinion about phainomena)
* [[argument]]

* [[foundations of logic]] aka the rules
* [[mental processes presupposed in logic]]
* contents of [[logical operations]]:
** [[term]]s
** [[predication]]s
** [[proposition]]s
** [[evidence]]
* for multiple [[proposition]]s about a topic:
** [[relations between individual propositions]]
*** [[truth-table relations between propositions]]
** [[uniting propositions]]
* logical [[validation]]
* [[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]
* forms of logical reasoning:
** [[induction]]
** [[deduction]]

* [[experimentation]]
* [[causal reasoning]]
** [[explanation]]

also related:
* [[conceptualization]]
* [[mental integration]]
* [[epistemic norms]]
form of government 
where sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units
|! hierarchical classification: | group of similar [[unit]]s |
|! differentia:                 | broader category of a [[concept]] |
|! purpose:                    | [[integrate|mental integration]] the [[definiendum]] |
|! part of: | [[definition]] |

Aristotle's definition: "genus as whatever unites things into being one and the same, though it has differentiae that are not accidental "

how to identify a genus:
# go from [[unit]]s of thought to [[characteristics]] 
# identify which previously formed [[concept]] has most of the characteristics you have identified
# check that concept against the remainder of the particular

A genus should bring in as much relevant knowledge as possible.
If you try to take the top-level category of the concept as the genus, you are not specifying enough.

* [[definition]]
* [[genus method of reduction]]

* [[generalization]]

[[Harry Binswanger's views on genus]]

Should a genus be more abstract than the concept defined?
guidelines for doing mathematical proofs:
* Tell what you're going to use to prove what you're going to prove.
* Work out a logical sequence of steps for reaching the conclusion.
* Expressions need comments.  
** Why are they being introduced?  What are they for? 
** What is least clear about the expression to the uninitiated?
** Does something need definition?
* Don't overwhelm the reader with new terms
* The design of a mathematical proof ought to conform to [[separation of concerns]]
** razor regarding steps -- Simplify long proofs without occluding steps
** Structure long proofs into a hierarchy of smaller procedures.
* Your goal is to establish all the essential facts you need to prove the conclusion.
* Tie everything together and explain why the original claim follows.

>"A law of nature denotes a fixed mode of action; it implies a subject which acts, and that the actions or phenomena which that subject exhibits take place in an established and regular manner"
>"...the modes of action are universal and invariable, wherever and whenever the substances or beings are found in the same circumstances." 
~//William Stanley Jevons//

But how can you show that an equation corresponds to a "fixed mode of action"?

This position ends up demanding omniscience.

A proposed [[scientific law]] must represent a recognition of reality, which can be obtained through [[generalization]]
|! step in the process of: | [[reading for understanding]] |
|! next:                    | [[ordinary reading|reading for managing sessions]] → [[reading for diction]] |
|! purpose:             | identify what sort of work  it is, what it's about |

# title page(s) -- subtitle? university? publication date?
# Preface/Introduction --  topic?  organization? special visual guides? typography?
# Examine the table of contents -- What are the parts?  Chapters?  Subsections? What seems important?
# Scan the index -- Which terms have the most page references?  Any frequently mentioned people?
# Glossary? Appendix?
# Sample important chapters.
# Are there any summaries of the remaining parts?
# Are there any connections for which you should compose questions?
|! hierarchical classification:  | ⊃ |
|! differentia:                | handles a large number of [[VPN|virtual private network]] tunnels to a private network |
|! by means of:            |  |
|! differentiated from: | |
|! fundamental characteristic: |  |
|! purpose:                 | remote gets secure access to private network  |

what they can be used for:
* remote access to a private network, such as yours or a business partner
* encrypting traffic on a private network

achieving remote access connectivity:
* [[IPsec|Internet Protocol security]]
* [[SSL|Secure Sockets Layer]]

authentication of user:
* [[Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service]]
* [[Kerberos]]
* [[RSA SDI]]
* [[digital certificates|public key certificate]]
A first cause is something that causes the existence of things without itself being brought into [[existence]] by anything.

If there is a first cause, there must be a first [[event]].  

Either there was only one first cause or there were multiple originators.

If there was only one first cause, then the first [[event]] could NOT have involved an interaction because interaction requires the prior existence of multiple things.
|! hierarchical classification: | style of computer programming ⊃ [[programming paradigm]] |
|! differentia: | state changes are confined to [[procedures|procedure (computing)]] |

* [[procedural programming]]

other species:
* [[block-structured programming]]
* [[modular programming]]
* [[object-oriented programming]]
* [[recursive programming]]

* [[modules|module (computing)]] having [[functional strength|functional strength (computing)]]

frequently uses:
* block structures
** [[subroutine]]
* loops
** for loop
** while loop

* state changes localized to [[procedures|procedure (computing)]]
* state changes restricted to explicit [[arguments|argument (computing)]] and returns from procedures 
* beginnings and endings of English [[sentence]]s:
** [[departure from normal word order]]
** [[place important matters at the end of the sentence]]
** give suspense to the ending
*** [[periodic sentence]]
*** [[loose sentence]]
* [[balance among clauses]]
* [[order of importance among parallel members]]

>"9th, Complicated phenomena, in which several causes concurring, opposing, or quite independent of each other, operate at once, so as to produce a compound effect, may be simplified by subducting the effect of all the known causes, as well as the nature of the case permits, either by deductive reasoning or by appeal to experience, and thus leaving, as it were, a residual phenomenon to be explained. It is by this process, in [[fact]], that science, in its present advanced state, is chiefly promoted. Most of the phenomena which nature presents are very complicated; and when the effects of all known causes are estimated with exactness, and subducted, the residual facts are constantly appearing in the form of phenomena altogether new, and leading to the most important conclusions."

* [[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
|! hierarchical classification:  | grammatical structures ⊃ [[parts of speech]] |
|! differentia: | a word, phrase, or clause adjoined to a word or group of words |
|! purpose:    | to qualify relationships |

examples of use:
* manner of action
* relation to circumstances

what an adverb can modify:
* [[verb]]
* [[adjective]]
* another adverb
* a [[sentence]] as a whole, a [[clause|clause (grammar)]] as a whole

types of adverbs:
* adverbs of manner
* adverbs of quantity
* adverbs of place
* adverbs of time
* adverbs of frequency
* relative adverb
* (adverbs of [[judgment|epistemology: judgment]])
** affirmative adverb
** adverb of negation
Mel Silberman (1996):
*     What I hear, I forget.
*  What I hear and see, I remember a little.
*   What I hear, see, and ask questions about or discuss with someone else, I begin to understand.
*   What I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire knowledge and skill.
*   What I teach to another, I master.
|! hierarchical classification:       | grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish the portion of the action, state, or quality that they modify |

>       I am //completely// finished.
>      That is //mostly// true.
>      We want to stay //in part//.
|! genus:                    | network tool |
|! differentia:              | |
|! by means of:          | |
|! differentiated from: | |
|! fundamental characteristic: | |
|! purpose:                 | ⊂➞ |



[[echein]] (condition resulting from having been acted on):


the working set of information of a [[process|process (computing)]] at time t
the collection of information referenced by the [[process|process (computing)]] during the [[process time interval|scheduling (computing)]]

* physical memory pages currently dedicated to a specific [[process|process (computing)]]
A universal is something common to two or more things.  aka "type", as opposed to "token", which is a particular thing

Aristotle's katholou -- "that which is by nature predicated of many things"

One's position on universals has [[serious consequences|metaphysical vs epistemological]]

[[theories of universals]]

* [[how to study a universal]]
Identify what's basic.
Identify [[relationship]]s among them.
Proceed from the fundamentals.
Apply the results towards specific problems.

Extraneous things are numerous. What's basic is few in number. 
(2005 Apr 8  14:21)

What's basic is simple.  Given two things of differing fundamentality, the more basic thing is simpler than the less basic thing.  
(2005 Apr 20  13:02)

What's basic is fundamental.  Use basic things as building blocks. Proceed from fundamentals. (2005 May 3  02:43)

What's basic is close to specific situations. (2006 Mar 13 15:36)   Comprehensive descriptions of situations contain countless details.  They grapple with complexities.  Basic things are easily applied to situations. (2006 Apr 29)

Purposes are more basic than methods.  Since more basic things are simpler than less basic things, methods are more complex than purposes.  (2005 Apr 20  13:02)
Life is a process of self-generated, self-sustaining action.

Its existence is conditional.

[[Living organisms|living organism]] are [[functional system]]s whose continued function is dependent on self-produced action.

* [[natural selection]]
* [[teleological concepts]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[ontological categories]] |

You can [[measure|measurement]] the quantity of length by comparing one object possessing spatial extension with another along a common spatial [[dimension]] of measurement.

See [[concepts of numbers]]

* [[philosophy of mathematics]]
the maximum amount of [[address space]] available to an application using [[virtual memory]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[epistemological standards|epistemology: standards/criteria]] |
|! purpose: | for evaluating epistemological health |

the norms:
* [[primacy of existence]] before consciousness
* [[standard of objectivity|objectivity]]
* groundedness (i.e. keep connected to perceptual level of awareness)
** [[norm of linear reasoning]]
** norm of reduction (which tells you to practice [[hierarchical reduction]])
** perception before cognition, by reference to which recognize the objects of perception as providing the empirical foundation for knowledge
** validation before belief
** cognition/identification before evaluation
** [[intellectual independence]]
* norms of [[integration|mental integration]]
** [[coherence]]
** [[Occam's razor]]
** [[Rand's razor]]
** [[context-keeping]]

[[Bacon's Idols]]
[[Bacon's Tables]]
[[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
[[Bacon on the Supports of Induction]]
[[Bacon on the Rectification of Induction]]
[[Bacon on Varying the Investigation according to the nature of the Subject]]
[[Bacon on Prerogative Natures with respect to Investigation]], or of what should be inquired first and what last; 
[[Bacon on the Limits of Investigation]], or a synopsis of all natures in the universe; 
[[Bacon on the Application to Practice]], or of things in their relation to man; 
[[Bacon on Preparations for Investigation]]
[[Bacon on the Ascending and Descending Scale of Axioms]]
;6th [[Inductive Rule|Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
>That such counteracting or modifying causes may subsist unperceived, and annul the effects of the cause we seek, in instances which, but for their action, would have come into our class of favourable facts; and that, therefore, exceptions may often be made to disappear by removing or allowing for such counteracting causes. This remark becomes of the greatest importance, when (as is often the case) a single striking exception stands out, as it were, against an otherwise unanimous array of facts in favour of a certain cause.
>Thus, in chemistry, the alkaline quality of the alkaline and earthy bases is found to be due to the presence of oxygen combined with one or other of a peculiar set of metals. Ammonia is, however, a violent outstanding exception, such as here alluded to, being a compound of azote and hydrogen: but there are almost certain indications that this exception is not a real one, but assumes that appearance in consequence of some modifying cause not understood.

|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:           | commensurable intermediates between two things thought to be qualitatively different |
|! demonstrates that: | species are actually ranges sharing a common unit of measurement |

For any [[change]], //something// must be conserved

A conserved quantity is  [[quantitatively invariant|quantitative invariance]] despite variation in another attribute.

* conservation of energy despite time
* conservation of linear momentum despite translation in space

Conservation laws are described by [[symmetry law]]s.

* [[proposition]]
Given the [[problem definition]], choose a [[programming paradigm]] appropriate to your problem.

# preliminary design
** top-down design
# implementation
# optimization
# validation
# debugging
# maintenance (e.g. change)
Goal as what a living organism pursues to support its life
[[Purpose|purpose]] as goal that is consciously/volitionally chosen

A consciously/volitionally chosen goal (I want this, for this and this reason, so I choose to go after it)
automatic goals in general (the circulation of the blood by the heart, breathing, the goals of animals via instincts or learned behavior).
"Defense in depth" refers to a defensive strategy where multiple control types are layered to protect data.

management or administrative controls:
* security policies and procedures
* background checks
* security awareness training

technical controls:
* logical access control systems
* encryption
* data classification

operational controls:
* protection of backup media
* securing output and mobile file storage devices
* facility design -- layout, doors, guards, locks, surveillance
[[climax]] embodying [[value-conflict]]
essential events leading to the climax
a separate unit of software or hardware:
* you have to end at the exit point of one module and begin at the entry point of another module
* you can't jump from the middle of one module into the middle of another
* control flow can be diverted only within a module

benefits of [[modularity]]:
* portability, which allows them to be used in a variety of systems, and 
* interoperability, which allows them to function with the components of other systems
* separate installation, modification/repair, replacement
A file in a sticky directory may only be removed or renamed by a user under the following conditions:
# the user has write permission for the directory 
# the user is one of the following:
** the owner of the file,
** the owner of the directory, or 
** the super-user.

This feature is usefully applied to directories such as /tmp which must be publicly writable but should deny users the license to arbitrarily delete or rename each others' files.
"[[reckless conduct]]"
[[SSH|Secure Shell]] File Transfer Protocol

better than certificates
contains [[environment variables|operating system: environment variables]]:
* resolution settings
* desktop background
* etc.

need to learn about profiles in Windows:
* in Windows, an environment variable says what "my documents" points to
* ntuser.dat
** appears in every profile on the network of the company I work at
** corrupt ones can't be opened
such as:
* words used recently
* vivid perceptual concrete impressions
* mental actions taken recently 
* recent topics
* [[contents of conceptual folders|reaching contents of conceptual folders]]
* products of the subconscious, such as one's response to one's unification of the information
useful devices:
* [[Arduino microprocessor]]

* can be the size of a cracked piece of pepper

|! hierarchical classification:       | [[integrations|mental integration]] of data |
|! differentia: | fit a curve to measured quantities |
|! purpose:    | establish basis for a new equation |

* using measurements taken at regular intervals to predict measurements at other times

why this offers only [[hypothesis]]:
Sometimes there are many ways to connect the dots, such as with the complexity of biological structures over time.  
Sometimes the samples are wrong.
Sometimes the sample size is too small.

associated works:
* William Whewell, __Novum Organum Renovatum__
* J.S. Mill, __System of Logic__ ("concomitant variation" makes use of the pattern)
Once you have some content then you may choose to determine a tiddler, or set of tiddlers to display each time you load ~TiddlySpace. This is determined by the [[DefaultTiddlers]].
[[Existence is not a predicate]]
[[Existence exists]]
[[Existence is identity]]
[[causality is a corollary of identity]]
[[things exist in relationships with one another|knowledge as a unity]]
[[primacy of existence]] (existence is prior to consciousness)
>"It is possible that we may some day know that matter gravitates as Newton supposed only under the condition that it is moving with less than a certain velocity, and so not unconditionally.  But matter moving with less than that velocity would gravitate thus unconditionally.  Whatever transformation our view of the material order may undergo, yet the interconnexions of [[event]]s within it, the connexions of cause and effect there traced, will have to be taken over as it were //en bloc//, unbroken and undistorted, by any interpretation of the world which takes [[knowledge]] as well its objects into the account, and holds matter dependent on its relation to mind. What we call a moving body may be something else at bottom than a moving body; but its motion would not, because of that, any the less appear determined in accordance with physical laws"
~H.W.B. Joseph, Introduction to Logic, pg. 418

as [occurrence]

whenever [correlating condition]

as long as [essential condition to be met]

as often as [correlating condition]

as soon as [future condition to be met]

when [particular condition]

before/after [state]

while [state]

since [sufficient condition that is met]

until [exclusionary condition]
kinds of problems:
* construction problems -- require building something with a range of suitable materials/operations
* [[optimization problems]] -- aim is to max or min something
* problem of causal inference
* dilemma
* value conflict
* [[design]]
state of execution
|! genus:       | [[ontological categories]] |
|! differentia: | situation/position resulting from action |
* [[metaphysical presuppositions]]
** [[identity]]
** [[continua are local|local continuum]]
** [[invariance]] is conditional
** [[uniformity of nature]]
* on [[scientific knowledge]]
** [[Sir Arthur Eddington's views on the base of all knowledge]]
** [[rationalism vs empiricism]]
** [[scientific law]]
* levels of abstraction
** [[differentiating propositions by level of abstraction]]
** [[differentiating physics equations by level of abstraction]]
* [[sequence of processes for scientific understanding]]
* [[scientific method]]
* [[principles concerning scientific inquiry]]
* [[induction]]
** [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
** [[universal of inductive interest]]
** [[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
** Given the role of [[mental integration]], achieving [[objectivity]] requires meeting certain [[criteria for integration/unification]]
* limits
** [[Stephen W. Hawking's views on the limitations of mathematical physics]]
* evaluating hypotheses/theories
** [[signs of epistemological trouble]]
** [[underdetermined]] theories
(function($) {

var cmd = config.commands.refreshTiddler = {
	text: "refresh",
	locale: {
		refreshing: "Refreshing tiddler..."
	tooltip: "refresh this tiddler to be the one on the server",
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(!tiddler) {
			tiddler = new Tiddler(title);
			merge(tiddler.fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		var dirtyStatus = store.isDirty();
		story.loadMissingTiddler(title, {
			"server.workspace": tiddler.fields["server.recipe"]  ? "recipes/" + tiddler.fields["server.recipe"] :
				tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] || "bags/"+tiddler.fields["server.bag"],
			"": tiddler.fields[""],
			"server.type": tiddler.fields["server.type"]
		}, function() {

|! hierarchical classification: | [[cognitive|cognition]] skills |
|! differentia: | acquiring [[knowledge]] |
|! purpose:    | prepare the mind for [[intellectual mastery]] of a topic or skill |

* [[reading for understanding]]
* [[ensuring recall for a process of thought]]
* [[self-regulated learning]]
* [[the Active Learning Credo]]

specific activities that help you learn:
* reflective observation of concrete experience
* engage as many of the senses as you can, at the same time if possible: speech, visual
* inter-relate presented information
* [[conceptualization]] and [[hierarchical reduction]]
* [[questioning]]
* imagine if-then cases to concretize abstract [[generalization]]s told by others
* purposeful play / experimentation
* organize information in multiple ways
** time
** location, in relation to other items of information
** ref: my series of diagrams (causal, hierarchical reduction tree, definition tree)
** ref: my color scheme for notes
* integrate with the rest of one's knowledge (aka elaboration strategy)
* gather tools, identify their uses, solve problems

[[modes of attention for learning from educational material]]

When you hit some new [[generalization]], clearly hold the unity in mind and REACH its meaning before proceeding to a new item.

[[evaluating the effectiveness of plans for learning]]

"razors" for learning:
* time for decoding -- learn neither too quickly nor too slowly
* economical generalization -- condense/recite neither extraneously nor imprecisely

* don't cram unrelated data together into one session
* When you hit some new generalization, clearly hold the [[unity]] in mind and reach its "meaning-range" before proceeding to a new item.

* [[hierarchical reduction]]
* [[abstraction]]
active process of awareness of object by subject

[[aspects of consciousness]]

attributes of every state or process of consciousness:
* contents (see [[contents of consciousness]])
* action (see [[actions of consciousness]])
** [[mental operation]]
* format of presentation
** perceptual / sense modality
** language
** body states
** "machine-level" reaction tied to external feedback

* helpers:
** [[memory|human memory]]
** [[questioning]]
* [[epistemological programs]]

* [[learning]]
* [[thinking]]
* [[introspection]]

[[managing consciousness]]

collation as an integrative mental process, either as putting together for comparison or as ordering into proper sequence

rearranging available pieces into different wholes

reaction-time associated with human speech

span of apprehension (psychology) the maximum number of objects that can be correctly assessed after a brief presentation

[[a template for operating consciousness]]

[[Harry Binswanger's views on consciousness]]
a group of words expressing a complete thought or feeling
expressing a self-intelligible unit of thought, i.e. a [[unity]] that can stand by itself without requiring anything else

A period signifies a stop -- a division between units of thought.  If you want to comprehend, judge, or evaluate, a period marks the moment to do it.

Many [[proposition]]s can be educed from a sentence.  If the sentence overwhelms working memory, then it might be necessary to deliberately write clauses that can be [[united|uniting propositions]] to grasp the [[grammatical relationships|grammar]] of the original sentence.

A sentence can be composed of several [[clauses|clause (grammar)]].

A sentence is part of a [[paragraph]].
|! hierarchical classification: | [[channel capacity]] |

Originally, "bandwidth" referred to the wave frequency of the signal itself.
processes of identification:
* [[measurement]] -- identification of a quantitative relationship
* [[abstraction]] -- identification of an aspect
* [[enumeration]] -- identification of examples
* [[generalization]] -- identification of a universally quantified relationship between [[subset]]s
* [[hierarchical reduction]] -- identification of [[antecedent knowledge]]
|! hierarchical classification: | judgement of a [[proposition]]'s relationship to reality |
|! differentia: | representing an assessment of the [[evidence]] for a [[conclusion]] |
|! prior action: | logical [[validation]] |

steps between unknown and validated:
* [[possible]] -- We don't know anything that contradicts the idea.
* [[warranted]] -- We know something that supports the idea.
** [[underdetermined]] -- We don't know enough to validate a theory based on the idea.
** [[probable|probability]]
* [[certain|certainty]] vs [[uncertain propositions]]

other assessments:
* [[arbitrary]]

> So far, I have considered only two mental states, knowledge and ignorance, and two corresponding verdicts to define an idea's status: "validated or unknown".  Inherent in the mind's need of logic, however, is a third, intermediate status, which applies for a while to certain complex higher-level conclusions.  In these cases, the validation of an idea is gradual; one accumulates evidence step by step, moving from ignorance to knowledge through a continuum of transitional states.  The main divisions of this continuum (including its terminus) are identified by three concepts: "[[possible|Leonard Peikoff's views on possibility]]", [["probable"|Leonard Peikoff's views on probability]], and "[[certain|Leonard Peikoff's views on certainty]]"
~Leoard Peikoff's //Objectivism: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand//, pg. 175

[[antecedent knowledge]]:

* You must assess [[products of causal reasoning]]

* [[evidence]]
* [[Instances of Alliance or Union]] (see [[methods for experiments]])
* [[Instances of Range or of Limitation]] (described mathematically by fields)
* [[Instances of Quantity]]
* [[Instances of Predominance]] (see [[causal reasoning]])

string of buzz word adjectives to [[demonize opposition|straw man]]

purpose: manipulate audience member into sympathizing with at least one of the sentiments behind the buzz words

>"This is an extremist right-wing, old-fashioned, piggy, aggressive, capitalistic, Thatcheristic, old-fashioned, 80's, majority abandoning for the sake of the minority system." (Pronounced with a particularly annoying tone.)
~Shelly Yechimovich, an Israeli socialist congressman and former journalist
[[relationship]] between the [[properties]] of an [[entity]] and the [[action]]s and/or [[interaction]]s [[possible]] for that [[entity]]
There is no action-potential without properties

that something is capable of doing something

If you suspend a rock from the ground, it has the potential to fall to the ground.  But if it's already on the ground, it can't have the potential unless you suspend it.  Potential is a relationship.

Everything that passes over from a state of potentiality to actuality is caused to do so by some [[change]].

Clay has the potential to be a brick but it doesn't have the potential to be part of a house as mere clay.  
something which moves other things without itself being moved by anything

Inertia is NOT a prime mover.  It is merely continued motion.
* [[right to know charges]]
* [[right to know evidence]]
* [[right to counsel]]
* on physical evidence
** [[evidence obtained illegally may not be used in court]]
* on witnesses
** [[right to witnesses]]
** [[prohibition of self-incrimination]]
** [[right to cross-examination]]
* [[limitations on penalties]]
** [[no penalty confiscation without due process]]
** monetary penalties shall not exceed the sum of court costs, compensation to injured parties and punitive damages
|! hierarchical classification: | [[assessments of propositions]] ⊃ [[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]] |
|! fundamental characteristic: | allowed by the nature of the [[entities|entity]] |

A conceived [[state of affairs]] is deemed "possible" when the following conditions are met:
* what we know about the nature of things allows it, i.e. that the state can be achieved by a set of interacting [[entities|entity]]
* there is nothing we know that prevents the existence of that state

If something occurs without [[choice|free will]], it is a [[metaphysically given]].  It could NOT have occurred differently, NOR could it have failed to occur.  An [[occurrence]] CANNOT be other than what it is.  

There is no such thing as a "possible world".  Reality is what it is.  It cannot be other than what it is. [[Existence exists]].

When we say something is possible, we are making an [[assessment of the evidence for a conclusion|assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]

* [[logically possible]]
* [[forming hypotheses]]
* [[underdetermined]] theories

contrast with:
* [[arbitrary]]

[[Leonard Peikoff's views on possibility]]
modifying a system so that some aspect of it relies on fewer resources ([[processor|computer processor]] or [[memory|computer memory]]) or uses resources more efficiently

optimization strategies:
* [[copy-on-write]]
 uniquely identifies an account or group within a domain
|! hierarchical classification: | symptom of a computing problem |
|! differentia: | involving how the system processes instructions of a [[computer program]] |

* program window (in a graphical user environment) fails to respond to IRQ, such as mouse / keyboard
* mouse cursor depicts a "busy" state

common factors:
* hangs related to hardware
** hangs caused by hardware mismatches
** hangs caused by overheating
*** hangs caused by a dead motherboard fan
** hangs caused by dirty hardware
* hangs related to the code of the [[computer program]]
** incorrect termination conditions
* hangs caused by deadlock between processes where each has a resource that another requires in such a manner that no resources are released
* hangs caused by a livelock, where processes respond to one another but no useful work is done
|! prior action: | table of instances of the [[universal of inductive interest]] |

We acquire knowledge about a universal through its instances.

Therefore, after we have formed a [[concept]] of the universal of interest, we must return to the sort of material which gave rise to that concept in the first place. We can bring to mind such material by asking the following sorts of questions:
* What existent(s) does the instance have in common with other instances?  What do they all have?
** [[if nothing but the predicate...|Solitary Instances]]
** [[if a factor always seems to accompany the characteristic...|Accompanying Instances]]
** [[if there is a previously unknown existent...|Polychrest Instances or Instances of General Use]]
* How does the instance differ qualitatively from other instances?  What's different?
** [[if mutually exclusive...|Constitutive Instances]]
** [[if unique within the known range of the wider category...|Singular Instances]]
** [[if the instance diverges monstrously from others of its species...|Deviating Instances]]
** [[if the instance lacks the usual company found in usual instances...|Instances of Separation]]
* How is the instance similar to other instances?  What does it remind you of?  How are they alike?
** [[if by physical resemblances...|Physical Resemblances]]
** [[if appears to be a mixture of known species...|Bordering Instances]]
* For the instance, what is the degree of the predicate in comparison to other instances?  How fast?  How intense?
** [[if weak by itself but greatly strengthens another...|Clandestine Instances]]
** [[if highest degree in nature...|Subjunctive Instances]]
** [[if lowest degree in nature...|Subjunctive Instances]]
** [[if degree lies between two ranges formerly thought to be separate species...|Instances of Alliance or Union]]
* How does the instance differ with respect to instances of comparable degree?
** [[if by composition...|Solitary Instances]]
** [[if by form...|conspicuous instances having comparable degree]]
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated [[physical system]] does not change as the system evolves.  

That measurable property is referred to as a [[conserved quantity]]

Conservation laws are not caused by symmetries.
Rather, [[symmetry law]]s are spatial/temporal concepts of conservation laws.
a fixed-length contiguous block of [[virtual memory]] that is the smallest unit of data for:
* memory allocation performed by the [[operating system]] for the sake of a [[computer program]], since the only parts of a program that are loaded into memory are the parts of the program required for a task
* transfer between [[main memory]] and any other auxiliary store, such as a hard disk drive.

[[echein]] (condition resulting from having been acted on):
* how secondary storage is involved -- [[page in]] vs [[page out]]

[[keisthai]] (situation/position resulting from action):
* whether in memory -- [[active page]] vs [[inactive page]]; marked by the [[OS|operating system]], which must track usage information for all pages

The group of physical pages dedicated to a specific [[process|process (computing)]] constitute a [[working set (computing)]]:
* The working set can grow through [[page fault]]s
* The working set can shrink because the [[OS|operating system]] acts on modified pages, e.g.:
** OS detects modified pages and writes them to mass storage
** OS marks unmodified pages as free, i.e. available for later use
* Appropriate working sets for processes are determined by the OS, which must track page uage

* [[thrashing (computing)]]
|''Description''|toolbar commands for drafting and publishing|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceFilters|
Provides changeToPrivate, changeToPublic and saveDraft commands
Provides TiddlySpacePublisher macro.
{{{<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:private>>}}} make lots of private tiddlers public.
{{{<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:public>>}}} make lots of public tiddlers public.
* add public argument?
(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var originMacro = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin;

tiddlyspace.getTiddlerStatusType = function(tiddler) {
	var isShadow = store.isShadowTiddler(tiddler.title);
	var exists = store.tiddlerExists(tiddler.title);
	if(isShadow && !exists) {
		return "shadow";
	} else if(!exists) {
		return "missing";
	} else {
		var types = ["private", "public"];
		var type = "external";
		for(var i = 0; i < types.length; i++) {
			var t = types[i];
			type =[t](tiddler) ? t : type;
		if( {
			type = type == "private" ? "unsyncedPrivate" : "unsyncedPublic";
		return type;

var cmd = config.commands.publishTiddler = {
	text: "make public",
	tooltip: "Change this private tiddler into a public tiddler",
	errorMsg: "Error publishing %0: %1",

	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return !readOnly &&["private"](tiddler);
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(tiddler) {
			var newBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler.fields["server.bag"]);
			this.moveTiddler(tiddler, {
				title: tiddler.fields[""] || tiddler.title,
				fields: { "server.bag": newBag }
	toggleBag: function(bag, to) {
		var newBag;
		if(typeof bag != typeof "") {
			var tiddler = bag;
			bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		if(bag.indexOf("_private") > -1) { // should make use of endsWith
			to = to ? to : "public";
			newBag = bag.replace("_private", "_" + to);
		} else {
			to = to ? to : "private";
			newBag = bag.replace("_public", "_" + to);
		return newBag;
	copyTiddler: function(title, newTitle, newBag, callback) {
		var original = store.getTiddler(title);
		newTitle = newTitle ? newTitle : title;
		var adaptor = original.getAdaptor();
		var publish = function(original, callback) {
			var tiddler = $.extend(new Tiddler(newTitle), original);
			tiddler.fields = $.extend({}, original.fields, {
				"server.bag": newBag,
				"server.workspace": "bags/%0".format(newBag),
				"": "false"
			delete tiddler.fields["server.title"];
			tiddler.title = newTitle;
			adaptor.putTiddler(tiddler, null, null, callback);
		publish(original, callback);
	moveTiddler: function(tiddler, newTiddler, callback) {
			var info = {
			copyContext: {},
			deleteContext: {}
		var _dirty = store.isDirty();
		var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
		var newTitle = newTiddler.title;
		var oldTitle = tiddler.title;
		delete tiddler.fields["server.workspace"];
		var oldBag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		var newBag = newTiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		var newWorkspace = "bags/%0".format(newBag);
		cmd.copyTiddler(oldTitle, newTitle, newBag, function(ctx) {
				info.copyContext = ctx;
				var context = {
					tiddler: tiddler,
					workspace: newWorkspace
				tiddler.title = oldTitle; // for cases where a rename occurs
				if(ctx.status) { // only do if a success
					if(oldBag != newBag) {
						adaptor.deleteTiddler(tiddler, context, {}, function(ctx) {
							info.deleteContext = ctx;
							var el;
							if(tiddler) {
								tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = newWorkspace;
								tiddler.fields["server.bag"] = newBag;
							el = el ? el : story.refreshTiddler(oldTitle, null, true);
							if(oldTitle != newTitle) {
								store.notify(oldTitle, true);
							if(el) {
								story.displayTiddler(el, newTitle);
							if(oldTitle != newTitle) {
							if(callback) {
					} else {
						if(callback) {

var changeToPrivate = config.commands.changeToPrivate = {
	text: "make private",
	tooltip: "turn this public tiddler into a private tiddler",
	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return !readOnly &&["public"](tiddler);
	handler: function(event, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var newBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, "private");
		var newTiddler = { title: title, fields: { "server.bag": newBag }};
		cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, newTiddler);
config.commands.changeToPublic = cmd;

/* Save as draft command */
var saveDraftCmd = config.commands.saveDraft = {
	text: "save draft",
	tooltip: "Save as a private draft",
	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return changeToPrivate.isEnabled(tiddler);
	getDraftTitle: function(title) {
		var draftTitle;
		var draftNum = "";
		while(!draftTitle) {
			var suggestedTitle = "%0 [draft%1]".format(title, draftNum);
			if(store.getTiddler(suggestedTitle)) {
				draftNum = !draftNum ? 2 : draftNum + 1;
			} else {
				draftTitle = suggestedTitle;
		return draftTitle;
	createDraftTiddler: function(title, gatheredFields) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var draftTitle = saveDraftCmd.getDraftTitle(title);
		var draftTiddler = new Tiddler(draftTitle);
		if(tiddler) {
			$.extend(true, draftTiddler, tiddler);
		} else {
			$.extend(draftTiddler.fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		for(var fieldName in gatheredFields) {
			if(TiddlyWiki.isStandardField(fieldName)) {
				draftTiddler[fieldName] = gatheredFields[fieldName];
			} else {
				draftTiddler.fields[fieldName] = gatheredFields[fieldName];
		var privateBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("private");
		var privateWorkspace = tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("private");
		draftTiddler.title = draftTitle;
		draftTiddler.fields[""] = title;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = privateWorkspace;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.bag"] = privateBag;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.title"] = draftTitle;
		draftTiddler.fields[""] = "false";
		delete draftTiddler.fields["server.etag"];
		return draftTiddler;
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title); // original tiddler
		var tidEl = story.getTiddler(title);
		var uiFields = {};
		story.gatherSaveFields(tidEl, uiFields);
		var tid = saveDraftCmd.createDraftTiddler(title, uiFields);
		tid = store.saveTiddler(tid.title, tid.title, tid.text, tid.modifier,
			new Date(), tid.tags, tid.fields);
		autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
		story.displayTiddler(src, title);
		story.displayTiddler(src, tid.title);

var macro = config.macros.TiddlySpacePublisher = {
	locale: {
		title: "Batch Publisher",
		changeStatusLabel: "Make %0",
		noTiddlersText: "No tiddlers to publish",
		changeStatusPrompt: "Make all the selected tiddlers %0.",
		description: "Change tiddlers from %0 to %1 in this space"

	listViewTemplate: {
		columns: [
			{ name: "Selected", field: "Selected", rowName: "title", type: "Selector" },
			{ name: "Tiddler", field: "tiddler", title: "Tiddler", type: "Tiddler" },
			{ name: "Status", field: "status", title: "Status", type: "WikiText" }
		rowClasses: []

	changeStatus: function(tiddlers, status, callback) { // this is what is called when you click the publish button
		var publicBag;
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var newTiddler = {
				title: tiddler.title,
				fields: { "server.bag": cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, status) }
			cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, newTiddler, callback);
	getMode: function(paramString) {
		var params = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var status = params.type ?
			(["public", "private"].contains(params.type[0]) ? params.type[0] : "private") :
		var newStatus = status == "public" ? "private" : "public";
		return [status, newStatus];
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var wizard = new Wizard();
		var locale = macro.locale;
		var status = macro.getMode(paramString);
		wizard.createWizard(place, locale.title);
		wizard.addStep(macro.locale.description.format(status[0], status[1]),
			'<input type="hidden" name="markList" />');
		var markList = wizard.getElement("markList");
		var listWrapper = $("<div />").addClass("batchPublisher").
			attr("refresh", "macro").attr("macroName", macroName).
			attr("params", paramString)[0];
		markList.parentNode.insertBefore(listWrapper, markList);
		$.data(listWrapper, "wizard", wizard);
	getCheckedTiddlers: function(listWrapper, titlesOnly) {
		var tiddlers = [];
		$(".chkOptionInput[rowName]:checked", listWrapper).each(function(i, el) {
			var title = $(el).attr("rowName");
			if(titlesOnly) {
			} else {
		return tiddlers;
	refresh: function(listWrapper) {
		var checked = macro.getCheckedTiddlers(listWrapper, true);
		var paramString = $(listWrapper).empty().attr("params");
		var wizard = $.data(listWrapper, "wizard");
		var locale = macro.locale;
		var params = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var publishCandidates = [];
		var status = macro.getMode(paramString);
		var pubType = status[0];
		var newPubType = status[1];
		var tiddlers = params.filter ? store.filterTiddlers(params.filter[0]) :
		var enabled = [];
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var title = tiddler.title;
			if(!tiddler.tags.contains("excludePublisher") && title !== "SystemSettings") {
				publishCandidates.push({ title: title, tiddler: tiddler, status: pubType});
			if(checked.contains(title)) {

		if(publishCandidates.length === 0) {
			createTiddlyElement(listWrapper, "em", null, null, locale.noTiddlersText);
		} else {
			var listView = ListView.create(listWrapper, publishCandidates, macro.listViewTemplate);
			wizard.setValue("listView", listView);
			var btnHandler = function(ev) {
				var tiddlers = macro.getCheckedTiddlers(listWrapper);
				var callback = function(status) {
					$(".batchPublisher").each(function(i, el) {
				macro.changeStatus(tiddlers, newPubType, callback);
				caption: locale.changeStatusLabel.format(newPubType),
				tooltip: locale.changeStatusPrompt.format(newPubType),
				onClick: btnHandler
			$(enabled.join(",")).attr("checked", true); // retain what was checked before

For a property in question, take a number of stages intermediate between two extreme cases which appear to be different.

This establishes how the extreme cases are different.

The method of gradation will distinguish between [[continuous change|local continuum]] and discrete change

* [[hypothesis]]
* [[induction]]
Given [[asset identification]], what is the order of importance?

review how people can get "in":
* methods of access
* authentication schemes
* audit policies
* hiring and release

* single point of failure
* backups
* failover
An "arbitrary speculation" is a [[proposition]] whose [[truth]] cannot be determined, even in principle.
An arbitrary proposition is asserted as if it can stand until it is refuted, as if evidence is unnecessary.
An arbitrary proposition lacks logical basis for affirmation or denial.
Arbitrary propositions are dismissed because there is no rational basis for entertaining them.

Not all [[unobservables]] are arbitrary.

You do not have to [[prove|proof]] a negative. 
Also, you can regard both an arbitrary positive and an arbitrary negative as arbitrary.

[[Possibility|possible]] has to be [[proved|proof]].
|! hierarchical classification: | measurement of network performance |
|! differentia: | the average rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel |
A thing's state of affairs is the [[relationship]] something is in at a time or for a period of time.

* in a state for an unspecified time-frame, e.g. "The earth is revolving around the sun" (contrast with [[relationship]])
* in a specific situation that is one of many situations it can be in; [[keisthai]]
sought products
ideas on implementation
line for further thinking
items that can be shelved for later consideration
|! hierarchical classification: | [[human memory techniques]] |
|! differentia: | store and recall numbers based on images |

|		|!	0	|!	1	|!	2	|!	3	|!	4	|!	5	|!	6	|!	7	|!	8	|!	9	|
|!	0	|	zoo	|	dais, dew, dough	|	ness	|	moss	|	ray	|	lee	|	shoe	|	key	|	fee	|	bay, bee, bow	|
|!	1	|	wheat	|	deed	|	net	|	mat, mouth	|	road	|	lead	|	shed, shod	|	gate	|	vat, vet	|	bed, bot, boat	|
|!	2	|	wine	|	dawn, dune	|noon |	moon	|	rain, Iron	|	lane	|	shine	|	coin	|	van, fan, Venn, phone	|	pane, pen, pine, pin, bin	|
|!	3	|	womb	|	dime, dome	|		|		|	rime	|	loam, lime	|	chime	|	cam	|	foam	|	beam	|
|!	4	|	wire	|	door	|		|	mare	|	roar	|	lure	|	shore, chair, char	|	car	|	fire, fair	|	pyre, purr	|
|!	5	|	whale	|	dial	|	nail	|	mask	|	rail, reel, roll	|	lull	|	shell, shoal, cello	|	coal	|	vail	|	bell, pail	|
|!	6	|	hedge, watch, witch	|	dish	|	niche, notch	|	mesh, match	|		|	lash	|	cha-cha	|	cash	|	fish	|	beach	|
|!	7	|	hawk, hook, wick, wig, wok	|	dock, deck	|	knock	|	mic, mug	|	rack, rag	|	lock, log	|	shack	|	cake	|	vector	|	peg, puck, pack, bag, bog	|
|!	8	|	hive	|	dove	|	knife	|		|		|	lava	|	shave	|	cafe	|	fife	|	puff, pave	|
|!	9	|	hoop, hub, web, whip	|		|		|	map	|		|	lab	|	ship, shop	|	cup	|		|		|
* causes
** [[one's motives in regard to others]]
* aspects of people
** what people get a [[sense of reality]] from
** [[how people get things from each other]]
** [[difficulties with people]]
** [[forms of irrationality]]
*** [[their contradictions|contradictions in people]]
* [[benefits of interacting with people]]
* [[hazardous people]]
* [[people who don't ask questions]]
* [[children]]
* methods
** [[courtesy]]
** [[knowing what a person is]]
** [[procedure for handling what people say]]
** [[how to be understood]]
* [[levels of influence over surrounding environment]]
* [[culture]]

* [[my criteria for friendships]]
* [[my criteria for relationships]]
* [[the way I react to people]]

* [[class-inclusion theory of predication]] -- the logical predicate is a class that allegedly includes the subject
* [[attribution theory of predication]] -- the logical predicate is alleged to be an attribute of the subject
* [[equational theory of predication]] -- e.g. Boolean algebra
* [[comparison theory of predication]]
* [[relation theory of predication]] -- i.e. between phenomena
* [[intensive theory of predication]]

principles regarding [[judgments|epistemology: judgment]]:
* [[the ultimate subject of every judgment is reality]]
A major [[premise]] is a universally quantified proposition, i.e. takes the form of "All X are M" or "No X are M"
|! hierarchical classification: | [[programming languages|scripting and programming languages]] for document formatting ⊃ [[page description language]] |
|! differentia:              | printing standard developed by Adobe |
Perception is the normal mode of experience

A percept is not composed of sensations.  It is a unity automatically available.

Perceptual awareness enables us to become aware of entities.
kinds of maps and mappings:
* function
** injective -- every member of a set matches to a unique member in another set
** surjective -- every member of set B has at least one matching A
* morphism -- structure-preserving map
** [[isomorphism]]
* operator -- mapping from one vector-space or module to another

[[the category of sets]]

the category of vector spaces:
* object: vector-spaces
* arrow: transformation aka operator

the category of modules:
* object: modules
* arrow: operator
Euclid's postulates:
# It is possible to draw a straight line from any point to any other point.
# It is possible to produce a finite straight line continuously in a straight line.
# It is possible to describe a circle with any center and any radius.
# It is true that all right angles are equal to one another.
# It is true that, if a straight line falling on two straight lines make the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, intersect on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles.

The 5th postulate is also known as the "Parallel postulate".  A geometry where the parallel postulate cannot hold is known as a non-Euclidean geometry.

Consider two straight lines indefinitely extended in a two-dimensional plane that are both perpendicular to a third line. 
* In Euclidean geometry the lines remain at a constant distance from each other, and are known as parallels.
* In hyperbolic geometry they "curve away" from each other, increasing in distance as one moves further from the points of intersection with the common perpendicular; these lines are often called ultraparallels.  Saccheri, János Bolyai, Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Gauss, Eugenio Beltrami, 
* In elliptic geometry the lines "curve toward" each other and eventually intersect.
* In Riemannian geometry, space is generally flat but elliptically curved wherever matter is present.
|! hierarchical classification: | [[conditional proposition]] ⊃ [[subjunctive conditional proposition]] |
|! differentia:                 | that expresses what would happen if circumstances were otherwise |

> If the boy had kicked the ball, it would have rolled. 
# forming and pursuing one's own values, not merely serving "the good of others"
# seeking upward mobility
# organizing people to accomplish a goal
# building a wealth-producing "machine"
# elevating productive geniuses by means of the "machine"
# organizing and directing multiple "machines" towards reshaping an aspect of civilization
percepts as derived from sensations

several schools:
* sensations as simple ideas (Locke), [[Locke's representationalism]]
* sensations as appearances (Hume)

manifold of sensations (Kant)

|! next: | [[methods for experiments]] |

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
path of connected points

a graph 
P = (V, E) 
* of the form V = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn }, E = {v1 —v2 , v2 —v3 , . . . , vn−1 —vn }
* where n ≥ 1 and vertices v1 , . . . , vn are all distinct. 
* Vertices v1 and vn are the endpoints of the path
* The length of a path is the number of edges it contains.
|! hierarchical classification:   | organization of data ⊃ linear [[data structure]] |
|! differentia: | consisting of a group of nodes which together represent a sequence |

[[doubly linked list]] is when the items can be sequenced in two directions opposite to one another
|! hierarchical classification: | [[ontological categories]] |

an aspect or feature of a thing

what is referred to by a predicate.

Every [[entity]] has its respective properties.  The properties make the entity what it is.  Properties are responsible for [[action-potential]]s.

Do Fermi surfaces qualify as properties?

|! hierarchical classification: | components of a [[computer processor]] ⊃ [[processor register]] of a computer's control unit |
|! differentia: | that contains the data to be stored or the data after a fetch from storage |

It acts like a memory [[buffer|data buffer]] and holds (anything that is copied from the memory) ready for the processor to use it.
|! hierarchical classification: | suite of [[mental processes]] |
|! prior action:  | predicating mental contents |

methods for generating content based on predicates of contents:
* move along a [[mental pathway]]
* change level of [[abstraction]]
** [[hierarchical reduction]]
** [[similarity]], analogy, metaphor
** [[genus]] and the rest of the [[conceptual hierarchy]]
** [[generating alternatives]]
* change scope of the [[mental integration]]
* change the [[system level]] under consideration
* change level of purpose via [[teleological hierarchy]]
execution time is the time during which a program is running (executing), in contrast to other phases of a program's lifecycle such as compile time, link time, load time, etc.

See [[process state (computing)]]
doesn't complain when others choose to do things that don't include them

doesn't complain when they don't involve themselves in the activities others have chosen to do

doesn't belittle or condemn people for their personal choices

doesn't belittle or condemn people for their feelings
>In logic the word term is employed to denote any word or words which constitute a concept. The word concept is employed strictly in the sense of a subject of thought, without reference to the words symbolizing it. The concept, or subject of thought, is the important element or fact and the term denoting it is merely a convenient symbol of expression. It must be remembered that a term does not necessarily consists of but a single word, for often many words are employed to denote the concept, sometimes even an entire clause or phrase being found necessary for the current term. For the purpose of the consideration of the subjects to be treated upon in this book, we may agree that: A term is the outward symbol of a concept; and that: The concept is the idea expressed by the term. 
~William Walker Atkinson, //The Art of Logical Thinking --or-- the Laws of Reasoning//, "Chapter 6 -- Terms", pg. 57
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: | used to hold a value that could take on several different [[types|data type]] |
 a programming language that supports the writing of scripts, programs written for a software environment that automate the execution of tasks which could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator. 

Environments that can be automated through scripting include
* software applications
* web pages within a web browser
* the shells of operating systems (OS)
* several general purpose and domain-specific languages such as those for embedded systems.
> the beginning from which later things follow
> the first thing in a series which leads to later things
~from LP's The Art of Thinking

>The idea of a basic or first cause... a conceptual first cause that has many derivatives...
> a fundamental generalization -- It's always general because it can't be fundamental if it's [merely] a concrete or particular.  It has to be something very broad in order to enable us to [derive many] consequences

> A principle is not synonymous with "any generalization".  You can think of it as an [[integration|Leonard Peikoff's views on integration]] of generalizations.  It's much more abstract than the normal generalization.  And if you formulate it properly, it represents the cause or explanation of... derivative generalizations.  It's the basis on which you can understand all the things that come from it.  A principle is to an ordinary generalization what a concept is to its concretes.  It is the integrator that unites all those lesser generalizations into one unit... 

> A principle in one context can be seen to be... a derivative of a deeper, wider principle in a deeper context...  What is fundamental in one context is not necessarily so in another.  A principle is the deepest level of integration possible within a given context. 

> We are not interested in principles that take us all the way back to philosophy.  We are interested in integration of generalizations in a given context of knowledge and relating to a specific field like politics, agriculture, etc. as against... jumping to the whole universe... if you abstract away from everything...

> When you apply ["principle"] to something, you are saying... this is something big and basic in my context

* Design the kernel of your computer program before you design the API

method of inquiry, pursuit of knowledge, investigating, mode of prosecuting such inquiry, system

μετά (meta, “after”)
ὁδός (hodos, “way, motion, journey”)
* [[apperception|William J. Taylor's views on integration]]
* [[Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander -- views on categorization]]
alignment of a [[risk response]] with an identified risk

risk management concepts for IT:
* [[vulnerability|network security vulnerability]]
* [[exploit|network security exploit]] 
* [[threat|threat to network security]] 
* [[risk|network security risk]]
* control
** [[types of controls to mitigate network security risk]]
** whether the condition was met:
*** false positive
*** false negative

* Single Loss Expectancy = [[value of asset|asset identification]] * probability
* Annual Loss Expectancy = SLE * Annual Rate Occurrence
* Return On Investment = ALE - annual cost
a series of sophisticated concepts 
made possible by and represent a wealth of earlier knowledge (which was also discovered by means of experiment)
necessary for designing experiments and interpreting results
A medium is an [[aggregate]] serving as an intervening substance.
> A term is any word or wordrgroup that is used as a symbol for an object or class of objects of thought. The object of thought for which the term stands as a sign may be either material or immaterial; either a thing or a quality. Examples: dog, blue, this man, Christopher Columbus, the book which you were reading, the problems that the teacher assigned to her pupils for home study, tomorrow's logic lesson, incommensurability, responsible, sameness, 
~William James Taylor, //Elementary Logic//, Part I, "Chapter 2 -- Kinds of Terms"

For each barrier/obstacle in the PRT, 
* identify its contrary
* identify the action necessary to achieve the contrary
* specify relevant measurements
When propositions identify actual relationships, they correspond to the [[facts of reality|fact]]. But since propositions are about [[unit]]s subsumed by [[concept]]s, their [[truth]] depends on [[definition]]s as well as correspondence.  (See [[Ayn Rand's views on truth]])

True [[proposition]]s identify actual [[relationship]]s among the [[unit]]s subsumed by appropriate [[concept]]s. 

what we know to be true:
* properties of [[existence]]
* [[implicit axioms|axiom]]
* [[the laws of logic]]

It requires a recognition of fact to determine whether a [[proposition]] is true or false.    

However, there are circumstances when that sort of recognition cannot occur:
* the proposition is meaningless
* the proposition is [[unwarranted|arbitrary]]
* [[the sum of evidence is inconclusive|possible]]
** the conjecture is [[warranted]] but not [[demonstrated|demonstration]]
** [[new evidence raises questions|paradigm crisis]]  
*** [[hypothesis]] doesn't [[fully explain a result|sufficiency]]

* [[on the "truth" of theories]]
* [[Ayn Rand's views on truth]]
* [[logical truth vs factual truth]]
* [[analytic vs synthetic]]
* [[proof]]
|!hierarchical classificationl: | tools of cognition ⊃ [[mental integration]] |
|!fundamental characteristic:   | identifying referents in reality that give rise to the idea |
|!purpose:       | to explain [[abstract ideas|abstraction from abstractions]] ⊂ reclaim [[objectivity]] |
|! aspect of:    | checking one's [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]] |

program of questions:
# What [[fact]]s give rise to the idea?  ...If you have difficulty naming them,
** What [[concept]]s come before the idea?  And before those concepts?  What levels of [[abstraction]] must you traverse to reach concepts of entities and perceptual experience?  If you have trouble reaching conceptual antecedents, look to a [[good definition|how to define a concept]]
** What [[knowledge comes before|antecedent knowledge]] the idea?  in the field?  before you can have the field?
# How did you form the concept?  What context of [[similarities|similarity]] and [[differences|differentiation]] were you concerned with?
# How is the idea related to other [[knowledge]]?  If you have difficulty identifying connections, force [[horizontal integration]].

* [[reduction of proposition to less general proposition(s)]]
* [[reduction of proposition to concretes that elucidate it]]
* [[reduction of concept to referents]]

* [[genus method of reduction]]
* nested reduction of [[term]]s appearing in an [[objective definition|how to define a concept]]

[[understanding hierarchical reduction]]

* to eclaircise an [[abstraction from abstractions]]
* to decide the scope of:
** [[concept]]
** [[generalization]]
** [[induction]]
* error detection, e.g. catching a [[stolen concept]]

* whether the [[concept]]s mark an [[essential distinction|distinguishing characteristic(s)]] in nature
* whether the facts on the basis of which the concepts were *first* formed are reducible to other facts of a more fundamental order

>When a law is right, it can be used to find another one.
~Richard Feynman
[[characteristics]] differentiating an [[open-ended set of units|subset]] from all other [[unit]]s possessing a [[commensurable characteristic]]

about distinguishing characteristics:
* represent a specified category of measurements within the "Conceptual Common Denominator" involved
* are the [[attribute]]s to isolate one group of [[unit]]s from all others
* become the [[differentia]] of a [[concept]]'s [[definition]]

If there is more than one distinguishing characteristic, the relationships among ALL characteristics must be observed to identify the [[fundamental characteristic]], the one that makes the greatest number of others possible and explains the greatest number of others.

In a definition, the distinguishing characteristic(s) are specified and retained, while the particular measurements of those characteristics are omitted. 
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of the [[operating system]] environment |
|! differentia:          | a set of dynamic named values that can affect the way [[processes|process (computing)]] will behave on a computer |

* directory paths, for consulting before executing commands
*  home documents; "My documents"
* storing [[application|computer program]] settings
* which terminal emulator (Unix-like)
* how prompt is displayed (Unix-like)
* where temporary files are temporarily stored on the storage medium
|! hierarchical classification: | [[malware]] ⊃ [[computer virus]] |
|! differentia:      | hybrid of boot and program viruses  |
|! by means of: | attack boot sector, then system files |

antecedent concepts:
* [[boot sector virus]]
* [[program virus]]
[[fact]]s concerning a subject that can be used to support a [[conclusion]]

|! aspect of: | [[argument]] |
form of government 
in which the people, or some significant portion of them, retain supreme control over the government through law
where offices of state are not granted through heritage.
where authority of offices of state is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fitted to represent them

Attitude toward [[law|laws]] is the administration of [[justice]] in accord with fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences.
|! hierarchical classification: | measurement ⊃ [[resource monitoring|system administration: resource monitoring]]  |
|! differentia: | when performance is monitored in order to deal with resource shortages |

The data from the performance monitoring process is studied in order to carry out a plan of action.

Additional monitoring will be needed in order to evaluate improvement and detect unintended negative consequences.
# Given what is said or done, grasp the implied evaluation or choice, perhaps through a [[summary sentence]].
# What's the group of similar [[unit]]s?  What's the [[concept]]? And what is [[predicated|predication]] of the concept's range of units?
# Given the range of units for that concept, could the [[predicate]] be said of other units?
# What would that wider [[generalization]] constitute?
# What philosophical idea is related? What is the relationship?

>You form a [[principle]] by generalizing and then identifying what is, in a given context, the fundamental generalization that explains or makes possible many other generalizations.
~Carl Svanberg

[[Leonard Peikoff's method for identifying principles]]

* [[fundamental characteristic]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:           | distinct from other examples |
|! demonstrates that: | the characteristic depends on peculiar factor(s) and circumstances |
|! purpose: | inductive [[differentiation]] ➞ [[classification]] ➞ [[conceptualization]] |

singular instances feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior actions: | conceptualization ← perception |
|! next:              | [[factoring a phenomenon]] |

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
* [[induction]]
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of a [[computer program]] ⊃ named components of source code [[subroutine]] |
|! differentia:            | called by something in a [[computer program]] |
|! by means of:        | a function call in the program |
|! purpose:               | to separate the specific [[task(s)|task (computing)]] from the remaining code |

* [[functions in PHP]]

* Functions usually return a value but don't have to.
* Many languages allow you to return multiple values. Though most only through an array, which is treated as a single object.  [[Python|functions in Python]] allows you to return two or more distinct values.
* Not all functions receive inputs; not all take parameters.
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[concept]]s of method ⊃ a construct for programming |
|! differentia:                  | an [[open-ended set|the open-endedness of concepts]] of [[objects|object (computing)]] which share a common structure and behavior |
|! purpose:             | defines a distinct type |

classes in:
* [[classes in Java]]
* [[classes in PHP]]

things you can do with a class:
* create an [[instance|instance (computing)]].
* create a subclass, i.e. a class that inherits from another --  When you create a class that extends another class, you make it so that it consists not only of the [[methods|method (computing)]] you specify but also of the methods of some wider class.
* create a subclass that overrides superclass  -- When you create a class that extends another class and define a function with the same name as that of the superclass, the special function overrides that of the superclass unless the superclass declares its function ''final''

what classes have:
* scope -- context in which the variables can be used (related: [[scope resolution operator in PHP]])
* relaxed absorption
* data collecting
* asking leading questions
* novelty-seeking
* identifying time-framed consequences of possible
the word or concept defined
possible values
unknowns restated in terms of knowns

* [[mental integration]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[network technologies|network devices and technologies]] ⊃ software utilities |
|! differentia:              | protocol decoding, producing readable data |
|! by means of:          | distinguishing packets by same host |
|! fundamental characteristic: | integrates packet information |
|! purpose:                 | troubleshooting network issues |

analyze individual packets to identify such things as:
* individual protocols
* ports
* endpoints
* sequential access attempts, by distinguishing the same hosts in sequence

contrast with [[packet sniffer]]
If the only observed difference between a case where phenomenon P occurs and a case where P does NOT occur is that something is present in one and not the other, then THAT factor may be causally connected to P.

If total absence cannot be found but the effect varies considerably, then there is a concurrent cause somewhere, something that magnifies (or minimizes) the effect.

Use [[Herschel's rule for differentiation]] and Bacon's methods for [[classification]]

!!associated works:
* Avicenna, a.k.a. Abu Ali Sina Balkhi, in his 1025 book __The Canon of Medicine__
* Francis Bacon, __Novum Organum__
* John Frederick William Herschel, __Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy__
* J.S. Mill, __System of Logic__
Criteria for the acceptance of an idea, wider specification, or [[proposition]] aimed towards [[mental integration]]:
* formulated clearly and precisely
* mentally unifies hitherto unconnected items of thought
* recognizes [[context]]
** consistent with the full body of current [[knowledge]]
* reached from an appropriate process of [[abstraction]]
** has valid antecedents
** its set of antecedent [[concept]]s obey [[Rand's razor]]
* has implications, stimulating thought and the need to investigate

* [[errors during integration]]
* [[characteristics of knowledge]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] ⊃ [[union data type]] |
|! differentia: | used to hold a value that could take on several different [[types|data type]] |
>"Answering to the first affirmative instance.
>The rays of the moon and of stars and comets are not found to be hot to the touch; indeed the severest colds are observed to be at the full moons.
>The larger fixed stars, however, when passed or approached by the sun, are supposed to increase and give intensity to the heat of the sun, as is the case when the sun is in the sign Leo, and in the dog days.
~//Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, 1620//
Concepts are open-ended classifications based on leaving details unspecified.
Concepts store knowledge.

concepts of:
* [[concepts of consciousness]]
* [[axiomatic concepts]]
* concepts of method -- designate systematic courses of action devised by humans for the purpose of achieving goals
* [[concepts of numbers]]
* the concept of [[nothing]]

before concepts:
* basis: [[unit]]s, which constitute the "extension" of the concept
* [[characteristics]]

[[aspects of concepts]]

* [[conceptualization]]
* [[concept-formation]]
** [[omitting all particular measurements]]
** [[abstraction from abstractions]]
* [[definition]]
* [[meaning of a concept]]
* cognitive role of concepts:
** [[unit-economy|concepts permit unit economy]]
** [[condensation|concepts represent condensations of knowledge]]
** [[identity]]
* [[conceptual errors]]
* what you can do with concepts:
** name examples across a wide range
** [[reach contents|reaching contents of conceptual folders]]
** identify characteristics
** [[define|how to define a concept]]
** grasp its relationship to reality, i.e. perform [[hierarchical reduction]] and [[identify the context|methods for identifying the context]]
** perform [[horizontal integration]]s
** [[apply the concept|applications of concepts]]
** re-introduce measurements
** construct, by adding a category of measurements

* [[Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander -- views on categories]]
* [[Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander -- views on categorization]]
* [[Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander -- views on concepts]]
[[evaluation of arithmetic expressions in Ruby]]
[[variables in Ruby]]
[[standard output in Ruby]]
[[inputs in Ruby]]
[[operators in Ruby]]
[[control flow in Ruby]]
[[methods in Ruby]]
[[libraries in Ruby]]
[[classes in Ruby]]

variable = object.method( argument1,argument2 )

class::classmethod.method( argument1,argument2 ) keyword |blockvariable|  method( object.method( argument ).method
There is "a system of cross-filing that serves as the frame-of-reference by means of which man grasps and classifies every existent he encounters and every aspect of reality" AR, IOE, pg. 

ways to identify such [[concept]]s:
* What comes to mind in association with the concept?  What facts involve the concept that you could get a "sense" of the context from?
* Ask questions, especially how, when/where, but anything about [[ontological categories]] is good.  Bring in all surrounding material through [[horizontal integration]].
* Set up a contrast that pins down the concept, i.e. [[conceptual differentiation]].
* [[hierarchical reduction]]
|! fundamental characteristic: | establish and renew purposeful alertness |
|! by means of:            | adjusting the activities of the mind as needed |
|! purpose:       | [[managing consciousness]] |

differentiation against:
* focus is distinct from productivity
* [[focus is distinct from mental health]]

|! part of: | actively directing one's [[attention]] |
|! prior action: | identify relationship of action to values ← monitor mental activities ← establish readiness to perceive |
* [[focus precedes knowledge]]
* [[focus precedes methodology]]

* [[free will]]
* [[morality and focus]]
* [[managing contents of consciousness]]

more precise differentiations:
* [[abstraction]]


"the state of a goal-directed mind committed to attaining full awareness of reality"
~LP, OPAR 56

> The essence of focus is purposefulness. To focus is to set and enforce... the goal of gaining a clear, integrated understanding of the world  and of oneself.
> Purposefulness is not a static state but a process of steering one's mind, adjusting its activities to the requirements of attaining full, clear knowledge of reality.  To be in focus means to //manage// the operations of one's own mind in pursuit of a cognitive goal.
~HB, HWK 325
a word, phrase, or clause thrown next to a word or group of words 
so as to qualify a [[noun]] or [[pronoun]]

subdivided by position in sentence:
* post-positive adjective -- following a noun

subdivided by what the adjective does:
* comparative adjective
* superlative adjective
# the basic means: Identify causally nested outcomes
# for every task: 
** strategic objective
** situation -- What is the data?  What are the sources?
** resources -- What of timing?
** array of applicable tactics / primitive operations
# automation of a task
** translate task into primitive conditional executions
** set up input feeds and output channels
** attach monitors
If an app calls for a [[page|page (computing)]] from memory, and that page is currently stored on the hard disk and has to be read back into the RAM, then a "Page Out" occurs.

If you have a lot of these, either there are too many applications running or you need more [[RAM|main memory]].
the creation of subclasses by refining a [[class (computing)]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[computer program]] ⊃ security software |
|! fundamental characteristic:              | quarantine, i.e. excise/resect some file |
|! purpose:                 | [[confidentiality|information security: confidentiality]]. [[data integrity|information security: integrity]] |
|! omit:                       | |

* Sophos
* Norton
* McAfee

[[antecedent knowledge]]:

[[echein]] (condition resulting from being acted on):

[[keisthai]] (situation/position resulting from action):


freedom to produce
freedom to keep the products of his effort
freedom to trade his products for the products of others
enforcement of agreements
resolution of disputes
> By “context” we mean the sum of cognitive elements conditioning the acquisition, [[validity|validation]] or application of any item of human knowledge. Knowledge is an organization or integration of interconnected elements, each relevant to the others . . . Knowledge is not a mosaic of independent pieces each of which stands apart from the rest . . . .
> In regard to any concept, idea, proposal, theory, or item of knowledge, never forget or ignore the context on which it depends and which conditions its validity and use.
~Leonard Peikoff, The Philosophy of Objectivism lecture series, Lecture 5
If we define the natural numbers as those which are used to correspond to physical objects in the world, 0 is not a natural number.
But if we concentrate on countability, then 0 might just as well be a natural number.
metaphysical dualism 
* mind as substance distinct from matter, consciousness as intrinsic attribute
* but distinguishes between existence and consciousness so neither is given primacy

epistemological implications
* denial that consciousness is relational

"Cogito ergo sum" [[begs the question|begging the question]]
consciousness without content is a contradiction
Descartes implies supremacy of consciousness
contradicting no primacy 
the array of action-intensities constituting the cloud of [[action-potential]] for an object

The intensity of a field at a given point in spacetime is measured by a set of quantities.

A field extends throughout a large region of spacetime so that its influence is all-pervading, though the degree of influence of a field varies according to an inverse power of distance.

Field-lines concentrate around objects
which [[SCSI|SCSI standards]]?
something affirmed or denied of the [[propositional subject]]
allegedly in the being of the subject
word or phrase designating a [[subset]] different from the subset appearing in the [[subject|propositional subject]]

A proposition may be true or false depending on whether the thing referred to has the property signified by the predicate [[term]]

on predicables:

* [[anatomy of propositions]]
|! purpose: | [[emphasis (grammar)]] |

the order of parallel members should correspond to the rising or falling importance among the members:
> What they did with the reboot of the series irritated the viewers, flouted basic principles of aesthetics, and violated business ethics
Eliminate irregularities by taking arithmetical mean of a great number of observed quantities. Its efficacy depends upon this: that in cases in which observed quantities are affected by other inequalities, besides that of which we wish to determine the law, the excesses above and defects below the quantities which the law in question would produce, will, in a collection of many observations, balance each other.

key figures in the description of this method:
* William Whewell
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |

[[subjunctive instances of highest degree]]
[[subjunctive instances of lowest degree]]

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
[[goal]] -- involves living action, e.g. [[goal-directed action]]
[[purpose]] -- involves consciousness
[[aim]] -- projected outcome
[[ends]] -- 
[[conditionality of life]]
[[needs]] -- conditions which must be satisfied by positive action on the part of the organism
[[teleological causation]]
[[teleological feedback]]
[[natural selection]]
barriers to adoption:
* social friction of switching, which can lead to conflict and cultural alienation
* some people find it more difficult to change their views over time because of all the [[horizontal integration]]s involving the bad idea that must be broken
* people who don't want to admit they're wrong
* the conclusion that philosophy stifles individuality or the self
** the premise that philosophy lays down what you should believe and what you should think, do, feel
** the premise that universal, impartial rules that apply to all men at all times is impersonal, that something isn't your true self because you discovered it
* the conclusion that philosophy is incompatible with creativity
** the premise that freedom to come up with groundbreaking, untried ideas is not possible if you have firm convictions
a first-class citizen (also [[object|object (computing)]], entity, or value), in the context of a particular [[programming language]], is an entity that can be:
* constructed at [[run-time]],
* passed as a parameter, i.e. passed as arguments to [[procedure|procedure (computing)]]s 
* returned from a [[subroutine]], i.e. returned as values of procedures
* assigned into a variable, i.e. incorporated into [[data structure]]s
* spatial
** wavelength
** amplitude
* temporal
** frequency = 1/period
* intensity
* velocity: speed, angle of direction in reference to an axis

transverse waves have an additional property called "polarization"
To exist is to exist as something.  

>"...a body as a troop or collection of simple natures. In gold, for example, the following [[properties]] meet. It is yellow in color, heavy up to a certain weight, malleable or ductile to a certain degree of extension; it is not volatile and loses none of its substance by the action of fire; it turns into a liquid with a certain degree of fluidity; it is separated and dissolved by particular means; and so on for the other natures which meet in gold. This kind of axiom, therefore, deduces the thing from the forms of simple natures. For he who knows the forms of yellow, weight, ductility, fixity, fluidity, solution, and so on, and the methods for superinducing them and their gradations and modes, will make it his care to have them joined together in some body, whence may follow the transformation of that body into gold. And this kind of operation pertains to the first kind of action. For the principle of generating some one simple nature is the same as that of generating many; only that a man is more fettered and tied down in operation, if more are required, by reason of the difficulty of combining into one so many natures which do not readily meet, except in the beaten and ordinary paths of nature. It must be said, however, that this mode of operation (which looks to simple natures though in a compound body) proceeds from what in nature is constant and eternal and universal, and opens broad roads to human power, such as (in the present state of things) human thought can scarcely comprehend or anticipate."
~//Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, Aphorism V, year 1620//

* [[axiomatic concepts]], [[axiom]]
* [[existence]], [[identity]]
|''Description''|provides access to tiddler revisions|
|''Contributors''|Martin Budden|
Extend [[ToolbarCommands]] with {{{revisions}}}.
!Revision History
!!v0.1 (2009-07-23)
* initial release (renamed from experimental ServerCommandsPlugin)
!!v0.2 (2010-03-04)
* suppressed wikification in diff view
!!v0.3 (2010-04-07)
* restored wikification in diff view
* added link to side-by-side diff view
!To Do
* strip server.* fields from revision tiddlers
* resolve naming conflicts
* i18n, l10n
* code sanitizing
* documentation
(function($) {

jQuery.twStylesheet(".diff { white-space: pre, font-family: monospace }",
	{ id: "diff" });

var cmd = config.commands.revisions = {
	type: "popup",
	hideShadow: true,
	text: "revisions",
	tooltip: "display tiddler revisions",
	revTooltip: "", // TODO: populate dynamically?
	loadLabel: "loading...",
	loadTooltip: "loading revision list",
	selectLabel: "select",
	selectTooltip: "select revision for comparison",
	selectedLabel: "selected",
	compareLabel: "compare",
	linkLabel: "side-by-side view",
	revSuffix: " [rev. #%0]",
	diffSuffix: " [diff: #%0 #%1]",
	dateFormat: "YYYY-0MM-0DD 0hh:0mm",
	listError: "revisions could not be retrieved",

	handlePopup: function(popup, title) {
		title = this.stripSuffix("rev", title);
		title = this.stripSuffix("diff", title);
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var type = _getField("server.type", tiddler);
		var adaptor = new config.adaptors[type]();
		var limit = null; // TODO: customizable
		var context = {
			host: _getField("", tiddler),
			workspace: _getField("server.workspace", tiddler)
		var loading = createTiddlyButton(popup, cmd.loadLabel, cmd.loadTooltip);
		var params = { popup: popup, loading: loading, origin: title };
		adaptor.getTiddlerRevisionList(title, limit, context, params, this.displayRevisions);

	displayRevisions: function(context, userParams) {
		if(context.status) {
			var callback = function(ev) {
				var e = ev || window.event;
				var revision = resolveTarget(e).getAttribute("revision");
				context.adaptor.getTiddlerRevision(tiddler.title, revision, context,
					userParams, cmd.displayTiddlerRevision);
			var table = createTiddlyElement(userParams.popup, "table");
			for(var i = 0; i < context.revisions.length; i++) {
				var tiddler = context.revisions[i];
				var row = createTiddlyElement(table, "tr");
				var timestamp = tiddler.modified.formatString(cmd.dateFormat);
				var revision = tiddler.fields[""];
				var cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td");
				createTiddlyButton(cell, timestamp, cmd.revTooltip, callback, null,
					null, null, { revision: revision });
				cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td", null, null, tiddler.modifier);
				cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td");
				createTiddlyButton(cell, cmd.selectLabel, cmd.selectTooltip,
					cmd.revisionSelected, null, null, null,
					{ index:i, revision: revision, col: 2 });
				cmd.context = context; // XXX: unsafe (singleton)!?
		} else {
			$("<li />").text(cmd.listError).appendTo(userParams.popup);

	revisionSelected: function(ev) {
		var e = ev || window.event;
		e.cancelBubble = true;
		if(e.stopPropagation) {
		var n = resolveTarget(e);
		var index = n.getAttribute("index");
		var col = n.getAttribute("col");
		while(!index || !col) {
			n = n.parentNode;
			index = n.getAttribute("index");
			col = n.getAttribute("col");
		cmd.revision = n.getAttribute("revision");
		var table = n.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode;
		var rows = table.childNodes;
		for(var i = 0; i < rows.length; i++) {
			var c = rows[i].childNodes[col].firstChild;
			if(i == index) {
				if(c.textContent) {
					c.textContent = cmd.selectedLabel;
				} else {
					c.text = cmd.selectedLabel;
			} else {
				if(c.textContent) {
					c.textContent = cmd.compareLabel;
				} else {
					c.text = cmd.compareLabel;
				c.onclick = cmd.compareSelected;

	compareSelected: function(ev) {
		var e = ev || window.event;
		var n = resolveTarget(e);
		var context = cmd.context;
		context.rev1 = n.getAttribute("revision");
		context.rev2 = cmd.revision;
		context.tiddler = context.revisions[n.getAttribute("index")];
		context.format = "unified";
		context.adaptor.getTiddlerDiff(context.tiddler.title, context,
			context.userParams, cmd.displayTiddlerDiffs);

	displayTiddlerDiffs: function(context, userParams) {
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		tiddler.title += cmd.diffSuffix.format([context.rev1, context.rev2]);
		tiddler.text = "{{diff{\n" + context.diff + "\n}}}";
		tiddler.tags = ["diff"];
		tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true"; // XXX: correct?
		if(!store.getTiddler(tiddler.title)) {
		var src = story.getTiddler(userParams.origin);
		var tiddlerEl = story.displayTiddler(src, tiddler);
		var uri = context.uri.replace("format=unified", "format=horizontal");
		var link = $('<a target="_blank" />').attr("href", uri).text(cmd.linkLabel);
		$(".viewer", tiddlerEl).prepend(link);

	displayTiddlerRevision: function(context, userParams) {
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		tiddler.title += cmd.revSuffix.format([tiddler.fields[""]]);
		tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true"; // XXX: correct?
		if(!store.getTiddler(tiddler.title)) {
		var src = story.getTiddler(userParams.origin);
		story.displayTiddler(src, tiddler);

	stripSuffix: function(type, title) {
		var str = cmd[type + "Suffix"];
		var i = str.indexOf("%0");
		i = title.indexOf(str.substr(0, i));
		if(i != -1) {
			title = title.substr(0, i);
		return title;

var _getField = function(name, tiddler) {
	return tiddler.fields[name] || config.defaultCustomFields[name];

* com servers, which know .com addresses
* net servers, which know .net addresses
* gov servers, which know .gov addresses
* info servers, which know .info addresses
|!hierarchical classification: | [[mental integration]] |
|! result:     | a mental combination of [[relationship]]s comprising a [[whole]], i.e. a [[unity]] |
|! purpose: | gaining or applying [[knowledge]] |

* [[vertical integration]] -- along hierarchy
* [[horizontal integration]] -- with other knowledge
* [[unification of phenomena]] to provide a basis for [[explanation]]
What habits/practices are signs of emotional rationality?
* traces emotions to their causes in their set of beliefs and standards of value
* questions beliefs that lead to intense emotions
* places thought between emotion and words/actions
* either respects the bounds of the social category or acknowledges that their feelings have changed
|! what is considered: | quantitative data |
|! operation: | analyze outcome distributions for multiple peaks |
|! purpose:   | aid the identification of additional causal mechanisms |

|! next: | [[discover additional factors|factoring a phenomenon]] |

operation suggested by Adam Reed
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[data structure]]s ⊃ [[abstract data type]]s |
|! differentia: | (key, value) pairs such that each key appears only once in the collection |

* addition
* removal
* modification
* lookup
The concept of [[infinity]] refers to the [[potentiality|potential]] of extension.

Since the set of constituents of the Totality is a finite set, there is a finite number of possible configurations.

Therefore, there cannot be an infinite number of non-repeating states.

Something must give rise to the finite number of states, ending the regress.  That is the [[prior materia]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[ontological categories]] |

something that happens, which involves [[entities|entity]] performing [[action]]s

types of occurrences:
* [[event]]
* [[flow of material]]
* wave
** [[longitudinal wave]]
** [[transverse wave]]
* [[process]]
** [[transition]]
** [[cycle]]
** [[rearrangement]] (see [[arrangement]])
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]]s |

{{{code_words { 'a' => 'alpha', 'b' => 'bravo'... }}}

* key
* value

implementations of the [[hash function]]:
* [[hash table]]
* [[hash list]]
* [[hash tree]]
* [[hash chain]] -- implements [[cryptographic|cryptography]] [[hash function]] to produce one-time keys from a single key
[[proposal|proposition]] of a happening based on a [[deductive|deduction]] form of reasoning, i.e. reasoning from a higher-level [[generalization]] to a lower level one or from a generalization to an empirical [[fact]]

Scientific predictions are based on some [[generalization]] that abstracts away time measurements.  Generalizations afford predictions for ranges of circumstances.

[[Principles|principle]] enable predictions because they abstract away time measurements and spatial relationships

* [[Winston S. Churchill's views on knowledge]]
* [[certainty in the midst of emergence]]
* [[Uncle Al: predicting accurately]]
An entity has structural [[invariance]] when its structure remains the same despite a particular [[component]] being replaced by another particular component that is compatible with the previous component's niche.  A totality remains what it is despite having one of its parts exchanged for another of compatible [[properties]].  Totalities are resilient to part-exchanges.

Structural invariance is a type of [[relationship]]

* [[ontological categories]]
>"Whence we may take notice, that general certainty is never to be found but in our ideas. Whenever we go to seek it elsewhere, in experiment or observations without us, our knowledge goes not beyond particulars. It is the contemplation of our own abstract ideas that alone is able to afford us general [[knowledge|John Locke's views on knowledge]]." 
~Locke, ECHU, bk 4, ch 6, sec 16

Could this be a seed of the [[analytic vs synthetic]]?
if condition

if condition

if condition
elsif condition
|''Author''|Ben Gillies|
|''Description''|Upload a TiddlyWiki file to TiddlyWeb, and import the tiddlers.|
Upload a TiddlyWiki file to TiddlyWeb, and import the tiddlers.
{ //# ensure that the plugin is only installed once
	version.extensions.TiddlyFileImporter = { installed: true };

config.macros.fileImport = {
	reflectorURI: '/reflector?csrf_token=%0',
	incorrectTypeError: 'Incorrect File Type. You must upload a TiddlyWiki',
	uploadLabel: 'Upload',
	uploadLabelPrompt: 'Import tiddlers from this TiddlyWiki',
	step1FileText: 'File:',
	step1PostText: 'In the next screen you will select the tiddlers to import.',
	step1Title: 'Step 1: Pick a TiddlyWiki to import',
	step1TypeChooser: 'Import From:',
	step3Html: ['<input type="hidden" name="markList" />',
		'<input type="hidden" checked="true" name="chkSync" />',
		'<input type="hidden" name="chkSave" />',
		'<input type="hidden" name="txtSaveTiddler" />'].join(),

	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString) {
		var wizard = new Wizard();
		wizard.createWizard(place, 'Import a TiddlyWiki');

	restart: function(wizard) {
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		wizard.addStep(me.step1Title, ['<input type="hidden" ',
			'name="markList" />'].join(""));
		var markList = wizard.getElement('markList');
		var uploadWrapper = document.createElement('div');
		markList.parentNode.insertBefore(uploadWrapper, markList);
		uploadWrapper.setAttribute('refresh', 'macro');
		uploadWrapper.getAttribute('macroName', 'fileImport');
		var iframeName = 'reflectorImporter' + Math.random().toString();
		me.createForm(uploadWrapper, wizard, iframeName);
		$(uploadWrapper).append('<p>' + me.step1PostText + '</p>');
		wizard.setValue('serverType', 'tiddlyweb');
		wizard.setValue('adaptor', new config.adaptors.file());
		wizard.setValue('host', config.defaultCustomFields['']);
		wizard.setValue('context', {});
		var iframe = $(['<iframe name="' + iframeName + '" ',
			'style="display: none" />'].join("")).appendTo(uploadWrapper);
		var onSubmit = function(ev) {
			var uploadType = $('select[name=uploadtype]', wizard.formElem).val();
			if (uploadType == "file") {
				// set an onload ready to hijack the form
				me.setOnLoad(uploadWrapper, wizard, iframe[0]);
				wizard.importType = 'file';
			} else {
				var csrf_token = config.extensions.tiddlyspace.getCSRFToken();
					url: "%0/reflector?csrf_token=%1".format(
						config.defaultCustomFields[""], csrf_token),
					type: "POST",
					dataType: "text",
					data: {
						uri: $("input", ".importFrom", wizard.formElem).val()
					success: function(data, txtStatus, xhr) {
						wizard.POSTResponse = data;
						me.importTiddlers(uploadWrapper, wizard);
					error: function(xhr, txtStatus, error) {
						displayMessage(["There was an error fetching the ",
							'url: ', txtStatus].join(""));
				return false;
			caption: me.uploadLabel,
			tooltip: me.uploadLabelPrompt,
			onClick: onSubmit
		$(wizard.formElem).submit(function(ev) {

	createForm: function(place, wizard, iframeName) {
		var form = wizard.formElem;
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		form.action = me.reflectorURI.format(
		form.enctype = 'multipart/form-data';
		form.encoding = 'multipart/form-data';
		form.method = 'POST'; = iframeName;
		onSelectChange = function(e) {
			var changeTo = $(this).val();
			if (changeTo == "file") {
				$(".importFrom").html('%0 <input type="file" name="file" />'.
			} else {
				$(".importFrom").html('URL: <input type="text" name="uri" />'
					+ ' Do you want <a target="_blank" href="">inclusion</a> instead?');
			append($(['<select name="uploadtype"><option value="file" selected="selected">file',
				'<option value="uri">url</select>'].join("")).change(onSelectChange)).
			append('<div class="importFrom">%0<input type="file" name="file" /></div>'.

	setOnLoad: function(place, wizard, iframe) {
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		var loadHandler = function() {
			me.importTiddlers.apply(this, [place, wizard, iframe]);
		iframe.onload = loadHandler;
		completeReadyStateChanges = 0;
		iframe.onreadystatechange = function() {
			if (++(completeReadyStateChanges) == 5) {

	importTiddlers: function(place, wizard, iframe) {
		var tmpStore = new TiddlyWiki();
		var POSTedWiki = "";
		if (wizard.importType == "file") {
			try {
				POSTedWiki= iframe.contentWindow
			} catch(e) {
			// now we are done, so remove the iframe
		} else {
			POSTedWiki = wizard.POSTResponse;

		var newTiddlers = tmpStore.getTiddlers();
		var workspace = config.defaultCustomFields['server.workspace'];
		var context = {
			status: true,
			statusText: 'OK',
			httpStatus: 200,
			adaptor: wizard.getValue('adaptor'),
			tiddlers: newTiddlers
		}; = tmpStore;
		wizard.setValue('context', context);
		wizard.setValue('workspace', workspace);
		wizard.setValue('inFileImport', true);
		config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList(context, wizard);

var _onGetTiddler = config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddler;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddler = function(context, wizard) {
	if (wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		var me = config.macros.importTiddlers;
			displayMessage("Error in importTiddlers.onGetTiddler: " + context.statusText);
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		var fields = tiddler.fields;
		merge(fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		fields["server.workspace"] = wizard.getValue('workspace');
		delete fields['server.permissions'];
		delete fields['server.bag'];
		fields[''] = 'false';
		delete fields['server.recipe'];
		fields.changecount = 1;
		store.saveTiddler(tiddler.title, tiddler.title, tiddler.text,
			tiddler.modifier, tiddler.modified, tiddler.tags, tiddler.fields,
			false, tiddler.created);
		var remainingImports = wizard.getValue("remainingImports")-1;
		if(remainingImports === 0) {
			if(context.isSynchronous) {
					{caption: me.doneLabel, tooltip: me.donePrompt, onClick: me.onClose}
	} else {
		_onGetTiddler.apply(this, arguments);

var _onCancel = config.macros.importTiddlers.onCancel;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onCancel = function(e)
	var wizard = new Wizard(this);
	if (!wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		return _onCancel.apply(this, arguments);
	var place = wizard.clear();
	return false;

var _step3Html = config.macros.importTiddlers.step3Html;
var _onGetTiddlerList = config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList = function(context, wizard) {
	var fileImport = config.macros.fileImport;
	var importTiddlers = config.macros.importTiddlers;
	if (wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		importTiddlers.step3Html = fileImport.step3Html;
	} else {
		importTiddlers.step3Html = _step3Html;
	_onGetTiddlerList.apply(this, arguments);
; Thesis: The world has a beginning in time, and is also limited as regards space.
: For if time had no beginning, then an infinity would have elapsed up until the present moment, yet infinity cannot be completed by "successive synthesis"

;Anti-thesis: The world has no beginning, and no limits in space; it is infinite as regards both time and space.
: For if time had a beginning, then there must have been "empty time" out of which time arose, yet there could be no alteration without time elapsing.
There are a lot of interesting people using ~TiddlySpace that you might like to keep track of and interact with. There are a number of ways of doing this.

If you see a number in the speech bubble in one of your tiddlers, it means that someone is writing about the same thing as you. You can find out what they're saying by clicking on it. Likewise, if you see something interesting in someone else's space, you can respond to it and write up your own thoughts on the subject by clicking "Reply to this tiddler".

Additionally, if you find anyone interesting, or you find an interesting looking space and you'd like to know when it's changed, you can "follow" that space. To do this, simply create a tiddler with the title: {{{@space-name}}} and tag it {{{follow}}}. If you want, you can store some notes about that space in the body of the tiddler.

If you then want to know what happening, simply [[include|How do I include/exclude spaces?]]@docs the @tivity space and then visit your activity stream at [[/activity|/activity]], or just visit the @tapas space directly.

!Not sure who to follow?
Here's a few suggestions:
* @fnd
* @cdent
* @pmario
* @bengillies
* @dickon
Inductions hold across certain continua. 

Since variation can be quantified, every [[physical system]] has quantitative dimensions.  The [[laws|law of nature]] of that physical system must apply to any point along those dimensions.  If they do not, then the so-called "laws" are merely descriptions of //some// cases of the system.

* [[ceteris paribus]] such as in phase diagrams
* [[across space or time|conserved quantity]]

Such continuities must be discovered through science.  They cannot be given by philosophy.  

@@color(green):For example@@, the laws of motion concern transitions involving measurements of space and measurements of time.  Therefore, the laws of motion must be formulated in such a way that they hold across all space and all time.  If other factors occasionally come into play, they can be added on top of the laws of motion as needed.
* "Conservation of momentum" refers to a type of [[invariance]] across space.
* "Conservation of energy" refers to a type of [[invariance]] across time.

* [[induction by measurement range]]
* [[experimentation]] can be used to show whether a proposed generalization holds across continuities
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[access control list]] |
|! specifies: | privileges for user(s) |

* a single user
* group of users
* everyone

privileges or file permissions determine [[access rights]]:
* execute
* write
* read

* [[sticky directory]]
* [[Accompanying Instances]] -- if something always appear along with effect
* [[Decisive and Judicial Instances]] -- concerning two rivals that appear with effect
|! part of the process of: | [[reading for understanding]] |
|! prior steps:                  | [[reading for managing sessions]] ← [[inspectional reading]] |
|! next:                    | prepare for learning → [[conceptual reading]] |

# Note the non-technical words least clear to you.
# If you can't determine their usage by using the index or consulting their other works, fall back on usage by similar professionals.
# After finding an appropriate definition, grasp the range of applications.
# Set yourself such that the word/phrase triggers that range.
# Apply the appropriate definition throughout the originating passage.
|! hierarchical classification:       | grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish an effect or result |

> It rained so hard that the streets flooded.

> Now that the streets are flooded, I can fold paper into boats floating down the street.
>"[[Knowledge|knowledge]] is the perception of the agreement or disagreement of two ideas "
~John Locke (1689) , __An Essay: Concerning Human Understanding__., BOOK IV. Of Knowledge and Probability. 
[[ontological categories]]

that something has become different in some respect
that the [[state of a thing|state of affairs]] is different from another state of the same [[thing|entity]]

Those differences are quantitative and can be measured along appropriate [[attribute]]s.  For any path of change, there must be some [[being-at-work-staying-itself]].

The identification of change presumes you can recognize [[invariance]].

Something present prior to the start of the change passes away from the subject during the change.  

> Everything in the universe comes from something that is NOT what it is in its final stage
~//J Megan Snow from OO//

kinds of change:
* [[assemble]]
* [[emergence|emergent properties]] of novelty
* in [[arrangement]] of [[component]]s
* in the state of [[interaction]] among components
** [[phase transition]]
** [[breakdown]]
* [[wave]]
* [[disassemble]]
** [[dissolution]]

attributes of change:
* [[continuous change]]

Technology is the practical application of [[scientific knowledge]] towards solving human problems.

Human survival depends on production.  Productivity cannot be increased without the application of intelligence.  Technology is the embodiment of productive intelligence.

Human life, without technology, is life without machines, life without medicine, life without agriculture, life without tools.  It is a short, brutal life spent struggling for the occasional bite to eat, easily destroyed by small changes in nature.
There is something.  There are [[physical existents|entity]].  The faculty of [[consciousness]] identifies these [[fact]]s.

Thus, there is a distinction between [[existence]] and [[consciousness]], between physical reality and awareness, between "the outside world" and "the inner world".  

The "outside world" is physical, as opposed to mental.  Things exist out there independently of consciousness.  

The physical world is made out of matter.  What exists out there is matter.  A [[form]] is merely a [[relationship]] or set of relationships involving matter.

The constitution of the universe can be viewed in terms of several different [[concept]]s:
* [[particles in a vacuum]]
* [[existent-path]] of change
* [[things in relationships|relationship]]
* [[physical system]] of interacting things
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[subroutine]]s that use a [[function pointer]] ⊃ [[callback (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | whose execution is triggered by the reception of an [[interrupt by the processor|interrupt (computing)]] |

can be in any of these:
* in microcontroller firmware
* in the [[operating system]]
* in [[device driver]]

can be triggered by:
* the pause button on your keyboard (!)
subdividing by function
* for rehearsal
* for elaboration
* for organization
* for testing comprehension
wires and protocols allowing expansion of a computer
<div class='toolbar'
	macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]] icons:yes height:16 width:16 more:popup'>
<div class='heading'>
	<span class='spaceSiteIcon'
		macro='tiddlerOrigin label:no spaceLink:yes height:48 width:48 preserveAspectRatio:yes'>
	<span class="titleBar">
		<div class='title' macro='view title text'></div>
		<span class="subtitle" macro='viewRevisions page:5'>
			last modified on
			<span macro="view modified date"></span>
		<div macro="view title replyLink"></div>
	<span class='followPlaceHolder' macro='followTiddlers'></span>
	<span class='modifierIcon'
		macro='view modifier SiteIcon label:no spaceLink:yes height:48 width:48 preserveAspectRatio:yes'>
	<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='content'>
	<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagInfo'>
	<div class='tidTags' macro='tags'></div>
	<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
|! hierarchical classification: | [[concept]] |
|! differentia:       | whose [[unit]]s possess common [[distinguishing characteristic(s)]] within a larger category |
|! by means of:   | [[conceptualization]] |
The prior materia refers to the existent prior to all other existents, the [[first cause]]

Since all existents are finite, the prior materia was also finite.

Any conserved quantity we observe is a consequence of the [[fact]] that the Prior Materia is finite.
"No sufficiently complex, non-trivial, mathematical system can be both complete and consistent."
# Someone introduces Gödel to a UTM, a machine that is supposed to be a Universal Truth Machine, capable of correctly answering any question at all.
# Gödel asks for the program and the circuit design of the UTM. The program may be complicated, but it can only be finitely long. Call the program P(UTM) for Program of the Universal Truth Machine.
# Smiling a little, Gödel writes out the following sentence: "The machine constructed on the basis of the program P(UTM) will never say that this sentence is true." Call this sentence G for Gödel. Note that G is equivalent to: "UTM will never say G is true."
# Now Gödel laughs his high laugh and asks UTM whether G is true or not.
# If UTM says G is true, then "UTM will never say G is true" is false. If "UTM will never say G is true" is false, then G is false (since G = "UTM will never say G is true"). So if UTM says G is true, then G is in fact false, and UTM has made a false statement. So UTM will never say that G is true, since UTM makes only true statements.
# We have established that UTM will never say G is true. So "UTM will never say G is true" is in fact a true statement. So G is true (since G = "UTM will never say G is true").
# "I know a truth that UTM can never utter," Gödel says. "I know that G is true. UTM is not truly universal." 

|! hierarchy of classification: | edicts to automated systems ⊃ definite plan or scheme |
|! differentia:     | passive or executed instructions |
|! by means of: | [[representation|representation of a computer program]] and [[execution|execution of instructions]] |
|! purpose:        | perform a [[specified task with a computer|task (computing)]] |

The source code consists of the instructions themselves.

An application is...

A computer requires programs to function.  A [[computer processor]] executes the instructions of the program.  A [[process|process (computing)]] is the execution of those instructions. 

Modern programs are called by [[user account]]s.  For example:
* In Samba, an account for a machine needs both a Unix account as well as a Samba account
* When adding the user, you would need to add Unix user and add Samba user.
* For removing a user, you would need to delete Samba user and delete Unix user

Some programs request [[services|service (computing)]] from the [[kernel]] of the [[operating system]].  A [[system call]] is how a computer program requests a service from the [[kernel]]

Programs have parts:
* statement
* [[data structure]]
** [[variables|variable (computing)]]
* [[subroutine]]
* [[callback|callback (computing)]]

aspects of programs:
* syntactic structure, any primitive part of which is called a token

There are styles of programming.  There are [[programming paradigm]]s

Any program stored in a file that will be [[interpreted|interpreter (computing)]] is a script.
Not all script files are interpreted.
* limit on the number of items one can hold simultaneously in focal awareness of [[consciousness]]
* limit on the number of items consciously tied together into a [[unity]] that is held in focal awareness
* [[attention]] depends on a feedback involving the content attended
* attention can filter out relevant contents
* [[fundamental characteristic]] does not necessarily cover all the characteristics
** proof: A [[definition]] is not sufficient to recall all the characteristics of the [[unit]]s.  If you have units, your set of mentally accessible characteristics is limited to what you know of or can derive from the units.  If you have no units, you must supply enough uniquely identified qualifiers to characterize the [[address space]] in search of units to latch onto and integrate.

two keys:
* one key is shared with the public, e.g. through [[public key certificate]]
* one key is private for decryption
aka [[pointer (computing)]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relation between   [[data type]] |
|! purpose: | enables a [[program|computer program]] to indirectly access a particular datum in [[storage|computer storage]] |
|! differentiated from: | data, keys, identifiers |

* a physical address of where the data is stored in [[computer memory]], thereby pointing to the data
** a variable in [[computer memory]]
** a record in [[computer memory]] 
* an offset (difference) between the datum's address and some fixed "base" address
* an index into an array
** a record in some storage device

The reference is said to refer to the datum.
The act of accessing the datum is called dereferencing the reference.

References are widely used in programming, especially to efficiently pass large or mutable data as arguments to procedures, or to share such data among various uses. In particular, a reference may point to a variable or record that contains references to other data. This idea is the basis of indirect addressing and of many linked [[data structure]]s, such as [[linked list]]s.

A reference may be compared to a street address, such as "12 Main Street" or "three houses down the road on the left side". Going to the building with that address is analogous to dereferencing the reference. The name "Bob and Joe's Car Shop" might be a unique identifier for the same building, but cannot be compared to a data reference, because finding the building with that name requires a non-trivial search or a lookup in some directory.
actions indicating ability:
* [[validate|validation]] a [[proposition]] against the full context of knowledge, e.g. being able to supply a sort of [[proof]]
* [[solve a problem|problem solving]] using acquired knowledge
* grasping [[similarities|similarity]] and [[differences|differentiation]] among cases
* form a new [[concept]] in the field
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of [[computer processor]]s ⊃ [[processor register]] |
|! purpose:              | indicates where a [[program|computer program]] is in its sequence |
|! achieves by means of:  | storing instruction |
|! omit:                       | particular instructions, particular [[processes|process (computing)]] |

* instruction pointer (from Intel)

antecedent knowledge (for [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]]):
* computer program instructions

[[echein]] (condition resulting from having been acted on):
* incremented

variation of use:
* fetch from memory first, increment after
*# system fetches instruction from memory
*# processor executes instruction
*# program counter is incremented
*# program counter holds next instruction
* increment before fetching from memory
*# program counter is incremented
*# program counter holds current instruction
*# system fetches instruction from memory
*# processor executes instruction

!!managing this topic
in queue:
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of a [[computer program]] ⊃ parts of source code ⊃ [[subroutine]] |
|! differentia: | that is bound to a [[class|class (computing)]] of [[objects|object (computing)]] |
|! purpose:    | abstract the task of building from the task of implementing functionality |

methods for:
* method for computing roots of numerical expressions
* method for computing sums of squares

methods in:
* [[methods in PHP]]
* [[methods in Ruby]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:           | characteristic NOT together with usual factor  |
|! demonstrates that:  | characteristic is separable from that factor |

instances of separation feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior actions: | [[conceptualization]] [[perception]] |
|! next:              | |

properties thought to be conjoined but aren't

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
> Terms. — A word or group of words stands as the representative of some thing, quality, relation, action
~Adam Leroy Jones, //Logic: Inductive and Deductive//, "Chapter 4 -- The Use and Misuse of Words"
categorize [[inputs for thought]]
reconsider how the problem is stated
implications of inputs, not for solution but for gathering info
connections among data
|! aspect of: | [[process (computing)]] |

In multitasking [[computer system]]s, a [[process|process (computing)]] can be thought of as being in various states over time:
* waiting for I/O operation -- A process may be in such a state that it is waiting for an I/O operation to complete
* waiting for page handling -- A process may be in such a state that it is waiting for the memory management subsystem to handle a [[page fault]].
* [[runnable|runnable process]] -- A process may be in such a state that it is [[runnable|runnable process]], i.e. that it will get work done as soon as it receives processor time.  
* running -- A process may be in such a state that it is chosen for execution.
* stopped --
arduino drew power from usb

555 chip was used as ocillator
* understanding them thoroughly (This requires [[causal reasoning]])
* [[thinking]] through alternative courses of action
* dealing with them openly
* staying in touch with one's priorities
* Measure your shoulder width. Start your tape measure at the back corner of one shoulder, run it across the top of your shoulders, behind your neck and to the back corner of the other shoulder.
* Assess your chest size. Raise both arms. Run the tape measure around the fullest part of your chest and underneath both your arms. Lower your arms to record the measurement once the tape measure is in place.
* Determine how long your jacket sleeves should be. Start your tape measure from the same point on your shoulder where you measured your shoulder width. Slide your tape measure down your arm to a point somewhere around your wrist. Personal discretion dictates how long or short you want your jacket sleeves to be, but the most standard stopping point is slightly past the wrist.
* Evaluate the length of the jacket. While facing forward, measure down from the base of your throat to your desired jacket length. The jacket length is subject to personal preference, but most jackets end just above the mid-thigh area.
|! hierarchical classificaiton:     |  grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish how the action happened or the state existed |

>        He ran //with difficulty//.

>        He stood //in silence//.

>        He helped me //with my homework//. 
[[interaction]] involving two or more things approaching closely and causing an abrupt change in [[motion]]
Right speech means not attempting to circumvent rational thought
* not engaging in slander, libel, or any other form of defamation
* non-abusive speech
* not engaging in emotional manipulation
* not trying to create discord among people
>"Concepts stand for specific kinds of existents, including //all// the characteristics of these existents, observed and not-yet-observed, known and unknown.  It is crucially important to grasp the fact that a concept is an "open-end" classification which includes the yet-to-be-discovered characteristics of a given group of existents.  All of man's [[knowledge|Ayn Rand's views on knowledge]] rests on that fact"
~//Ayn Rand, ITOE, pg. 65-66//

|! hierarchical classification: | [[declarative programming]] |
|! purpose: | prototyping |
[[page description language]]s:
* [[PCL|Printer Control Language]]
* [[PostScript]]

types of printers:
* impact printer
** daisy wheel printer
** dot matrix printer
** line printer
* inkjet printer
* laser
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] |
|! differentia: | a list of permissions for an object |
|! purpose:    | [[access control]] |

ACLs organized by purpose:
* [[filesystem Access Control List]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[malware]] |

types of computer viruses:
* boot sector virus -- virus loads into memory on boot
* program virus -- infects executable program files and becomes active in memory
* [[multipartite virus]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[programming paradigm]] ⊃ [[structured programming]] |
|! differentia:     | procedure call |
|! by means of: | [[subroutine]] |
|! LISP function |! function   |! purpose |
| cons                | construct  | allocate memory for two address spaces |
| car                  |>|                  return contents of the address part of the register |
| cdr                  |>|                  return contents of the decrement part of the register |

|! LISP expression                   |! LISP value   |! equivalent to  |! term |
| (cons 3 (cons 1 2))                 | (3 1 . 2)        | (3 . (1 . 2))     | beading the cons cells |
| (cons (cons 0 1) (cons 1 2))  | ((0 . 1) 1 . 2)  |
| (cons 1 (cons 2 '()))               | (1 2)              |

If the effect you're trying to understand happens when a factor is absent, that factor can't be the cause

"That if in our group of facts there be one in which any assigned peculiarity or attendant circumstance is wanting or opposite, such peculiarity cannot be the cause we seek"
Herschel, 146
|! hierarchical classification: | [[ontological categories]] ⊃ aspects of [[existent]]s |
|!differentia:              | inherent in a particular existent or type of existent |
|!abstracted from:    | [[entities|entity]] or attributes of entities |

Attributes can be mentally separated from a [[physical existent|entity]] or [[mental existent]] through a process of [[abstraction]].

Attributes cannot exist apart from [[physical existents|entity]] and [[mental existent]]s.

species of attributes:
* [[structure]]
** [[termini]] are attributes of structures
* [[properties]]
* along a continuum:
** [[state function]]
** [[attributes involving waves]]
* [[emergent properties]]
* generation of alternatives
* criteria for relevance, i.e. what constitutes relevance to a [[domain of thought]]
* formulate descriptions of orders, schemes for approaching problems, actions of [[consciousness]]; put the outline into peripheral awarenes, so that the history is accessible to consciousness without burdening focal awareness

Given awareness of something, you can:
* form/apply [[concept]]s
* retain, from perceived entities, every observed [[state of affairs]] that could last long enough to need attention in the future
* draw analogies to some idea or problem of interest

Given outputs of subconscious, you can:
* Consciously identify the relationship between the output and the input; the result of such identifications is a [[mental pathway]] from one topic to another.
* Preserve the chain of successive topics.
* Widen the range of alternatives.
* Identify the associated mental action and its intention.

If your intention is to construct a chain of successive topics:
* For output of the subconscious, [[assess|assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]].
** When a conjecture is uncertain, [[formulate a question|questioning]].
* Integrate output to input.

If your intention is to encourage the subconscious to produce output, you can:
* Reconstruct the chain of recent mental activities and search the results.
* Apply [[teleological hierarchy]].
* Pay [[attention]] to surroundings.

on assigning orders to yourself:
* Decide whether it's worth issuing a standing order.
* Tie your standing order to a concrete, physical event that you know MUST happen despite unexpected occurrences.
* Act on the reminder to enforce its trigger.
* Automate ONE standing order at a time.
|! hierarchical classification: | [[actions of consciousness]] |
|! purpose:                 | to supply consciousness with necessary mental contents |

"the question is how to leverage that process to make better memory stuff or as I call it psycho-epistemological engineering" ~Onyx Shoham

[[conceptually subdividing human memory]]

[[how human memory works]]

[[human memory techniques]]

[[ensuring recall for a process of thought]]

* [[managing contents of consciousness]]
* [[processing contents of consciousness for unity]]
How do you know when you have retained awareness of some [[fact]] of reality?
* grounded in observed [[fact]]s
* arrived at [[objectively|objectivity]]
* discovered through a process of applying [[logic]] to [[fact]]s
* [[knowledge as a unity]]
** [[does not contradict|no contradictions in reality]] the rest of one's [[knowledge]]
* correctly placed within the [[hierarchy of knowledge]]
* [[certainty]]

>"knowledge" describes a proper causal relationship between a [[proposition]] and reality -- that is, the consciousness has integrated [[awareness]] of [[fact]]s, and has [[validated|validation]] a [[conclusion]] by the use of [[logic]], applied to that awareness.
~Dave Odden

Scientific knowledge is knowledge of [[causality]]
[[string functions in PHP]]

[[defining functions in PHP]]
# [[Solitary Instances]] -- have nothing in common save the "required nature"; indicates that conformation is more important than parts ([[instances for causal inference]])
# [[Migrating Instances]] -- where their limited span of existence narrows the form
# [[Conspicuous Instances]] -- where "required nature" is clear, not significantly dampened by other things; differentiates
# [[Clandestine Instances]] -- where "required nature" appears weak, subdued by contrary natures; demonstrates that "required nature" is a narrower range within a new genera
# [[Constitutive Instances]] -- species of "required nature"
# [[Physical Resemblances]] -- between instances ([[classification]])
# [[Singular Instances]] -- unique perceptual-concretes; indicates new genera ([[classification]])
# [[Deviating Instances]] -- what differs from the "usual" course of nature; indicates new causes worth inquiry
# [[Bordering Instances]] -- appears to be a mixture of two categories ([[classification]])
# [[Instances of Power]] -- new causes to exploit, new materials to exploit
# [[Accompanying Instances]], [[Hostile Instances]] -- indicates [[causality]]
# [[Subjunctive Instances]] -- things with an extreme quantity
# [[Instances of Alliance or Union]] -- unite natures held to be heterogeneous ([[classification]], [[experimental|methods for experiments]])
# [[Decisive and Judicial Instances]] -- decide between rivals
# [[Instances of Separation]] -- separate particular nature from concrete substance usually found in conjunction
# aid the senses -- [[Instances of the Door or Gate]] -- magnifies
# aid the senses -- [[Summoning Instances]] -- makes perceptible what cannot be perceived unaided
# [[Instances of the Road]] -- indicate stages in a process
#  -- [[Supplementary or Substitutive Instances]] -- 
# [[Dissecting Instances]] -- awaken understanding by means of many ([[instances for causal inference]])
# measurement -- [[Instances of Range or of Limitation]] -- demonstrate how something acts at a distance (so they're also [[instances for causal inference]])
# measurement -- [[Instances of the Course]] -- time, velocity differences, etc.
# measurement -- [[Instances of Quantity]] -- indicate quantitative relationship
# measurement -- [[Instances of Predominance]] -- compare powers quantitatively
# [[Suggesting Instances]] -- point out what is useful to man
# experiment -- [[Polychrest Instances or Instances of General Use]] -- what happens when you change something in a manner that you're familiar with
# [["Magical" Instances]] -- tiny quantity of substance causes tremendous effect

* [[Baconian induction]]
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|''Description''|configuration settings for TiddlyWebWiki|
|''Requires''|TiddlyWebAdaptor ServerSideSavingPlugin|
|''Keywords''|serverSide TiddlyWeb|
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if(!config.adaptors.tiddlyweb) {
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var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
var recipe = tiddler.fields["server.recipe"];
var workspace = recipe ? "recipes/" + recipe : "bags/common";

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	getStatus: null, // assigned later
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// hijack isReadOnly to take into account permissions and content type
var _isReadOnly = Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly;
Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly = function() {
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* Measure your waist. Find a starting point slightly below either hip bone along your waist line. Loop the tape measure around your waist and back to your starting point.
* Determine your inseam. While wearing appropriate shoes, begin the measurement at the top, inside part of your leg where your leg meets your groin. Run the tape measure down the inside of the leg to a point near the middle of your foot.
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:           | structural similarity |

physical feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior action:               | comparison ← [[perception]] |
|! next:                          | [[methods for experiments]]  |
|! classification of next:| [[experimentation]] |

physical [[similarity]] between ear and places which return an echo
structure necessary for effect

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
* [[induction]] by use of [[concept]] of causal relationship
* that [[hypothesis]] ought not be a mere conjecture/guess 
* that hypothesis ought to concern a universal law to encompass general laws
* that hypotheses shall include an unlimited variety of particular laws
* that hypotheses help us reach general laws even when falsified

We can generalize a level beyond the lower-level laws, thus subsuming them under a more universal formulation. 

Analogies and statistics will convince us of one of two things: 
* that it really explains what happens in nature, or 
* that it’s very [[similar|similarity]] to or approximates what really happens and thus expresses both the reality and the proposed reality of the situation.

* [[forming hypotheses]]
* [[criteria for hypothesis-formation]]
* [[underdetermined]] theories
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] ⊃ [[union data type]] |
|! differentia: | used to hold a value that could take on several different [[types|data type]] |
|! part of: | [[storage disk track]] |

consistently-sized (often 512 bytes) segments of tracks

Each track contains a set number of sectors.

The space between the sectors is not used.
|! hierarchical classification: | |
|! differentia: | |

* extends a private network across a public network (e.g. the Internet)
* enables a computer or network-enabled device to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were directly connected to the private network
* enables a computer or network-enabled device to benefit from the functionality, security and management policies of the private network
* created by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection 

methods for establishing point-to-point connection:
* dedicated connections
* virtual tunneling protocols
** pass an encryption protocol ([[IPsec|Internet Protocol security]]) within a tunnel ([[L2TP|Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol]])
** [[SSL|Secure Sockets Layer]]/[[TLS|Transport Layer Security]]
** point-to-point tunneling protocol is least secure
* traffic encryption

* access private network from home across the Internet
** IP on private network could be dynamically assigned
[[inference of existent]]
[[inference of attribute]]
[[inference of relationship]]

[[quantity is not inferred]]
|! aspect of: | computer processing |

statistics about CPU utilization:
* system-level percentages 
* user-level percentages
* [[interrupts|interrupt (computing)]]
* [[context switches|processor context switch]]
* number of [[runnable processes|runnable process]]
* services provided to processes by the [[operating system]]
** [[memory management]]
** I/O processing
# Define the intended change. See [[Goldratt's thinking processes]]
# Prepare to deal with consequences.
** Identify time-framed effects of changes.
# Develop a range of alternate plans (for a timed sequence of small changes of such nature that you can back out of at each step should a problem be detected).
** Identify or develop sensors for detecting the impact of incremental changes
** For each Rubicon, ETA.
** criterion: What fails ought to fail loudly before you cross a Rubicon.
# Settle on criteria for evaluation of design.
# Evaluate design:
** identify the impact of success
** identify some potential causes of failure
*** develop contingency plans
# carry out the steps while monitoring the sensors
# document the results

!!search terms:
process for controlling change
|! purpose: | [[supplying the mind]] ➞ [[ensuring productive thinking]] |

to collect:
* perceptual concretes
* [[similarities|similarity]]
** continuities
* [[differences|differentiation]]
** discontinuities
* [[measurement]]s
* [[change]]
* [[fact]]s
* [[correlations|regularity: covariation]] -- [[Herschel's rule of concomitant variation]]
* tagged items

* [[how to study a universal]] for a future [[induction]]
name of anything of which we can have either thought or [[concept]]

used as nouns:
* [[gerund]], where a [[verbal]] is used as a noun

nouns are varied by:
* person -- first person, second person, third person
* number -- singular, plural
* gender
** neuter (inanimate things)
** common (as of yet unknown gender)
** masculine / feminine
* case -- the relation one noun bears to another or to a verb or to a preposition
** nominative case
** possessive case
** objective case
|! hierarchical classification: | [[programming paradigm]] ⊃ [[structured programming]] |
|! differentia: | emphasizes separating the functionality of a software into [[modules|module (computing)]] |

fundamental principles: 
* [[Similar|similarity]] functions should be contained within the same unit of programming code.
* Separate functions should be developed as separate units of code so that the code can easily be maintained and reused by different programs. See [[separation of concerns]].

* [[maintainability]]

hierarchical approach to module decomposition:
# Begin with rudimentary top-down design
# Plan for each module to accomplish one function only.
** Suspend decisions concerning control structures until you have a sequence of modules to execute.
# When writing a module, ensure that it contains everything necessary to accomplish its function.

how to minimize the impact of possible change:
* Pay attention to data-passing. 
* Group modules according to things that may change.  
* Identify the smallest set of interacting data structures and algorithms that share knowledge about how they collectively work.

evaluating module design:
* Evaluate [[functional strength (computing)]]
* Are the blocks "coupled"?  Or can you change one without having to change another?
** Eschew coupling by embracing [[separation of concerns]].

computing mechanisms to ensure that concurrently executing sequences of programmed instructions do not execute specific portions of a [[computer program]] at the same time

* synchronization in databases, to prevent unintentional modification of data
* synchronization of [[threads of a process|thread (computing)]]
* synchornization of threads of two different [[processes|process (computing)]]
what to put in the subconscious:
* guidelines
* pressing matters to work on

[[standing orders for the subconscious]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental integration]] |
|! aspect of: | [[concept-formation]] |

grasping [[similarities|similarity]] and differences among [[unit]]s
enabling you to "line them up"(?) according to commensurable characteristics
> above
> farther on
> opposite to
> close, nearby
> adjacent to
> below
> beyond
> in front 
> in back 
> to the left/right
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: | used to hold a value that could take on several different [[types|data type]] |
a loop for processing real time experience:
# What has [[attention]]?
# What did it temporally follow, in sequence?
# Did the new come from [[perception]], [[conceptual identification]], [[similarity]], or testimony?
# Aspect of what [[whole]]?
# What [[distinguishes|differentiation]] the particular situation from the whole and from similar things?
# Unify the [[distinguishing characteristic(s)]] as a set of tags.
# "Name" the state of mind by assigning to it, as a "symbol" for it, a blend of all all sensory perceptual data present.

unifying the sequence:
"Automatic select" is complemented by "deliberately broaden view to whole"
"Whole situation" is grasped by "get distinctive characteristics"
"Distinction" is complemented by "get multiple similarities to previous knowledge"
"Conceptual set including new" is complemented by "deliberately apply to  current state"
"Current state" is uniquely identified by sensory perceptual data
"Particular" is complemented by causal knowledge

in principle:
What happened automatically?
What deliberate conscious act would complement the automatic?
What ties the results to the original material?
What ties the original material to previous knowledge?
How can the particulars [[be recalled later|ensuring recall for a process of thought]]?

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An entity is that which you perceive and exists by itself, a physical [[existent]] of a specific nature made of specific attributes.  It is physical in that it exists independent of consciousness.  

An entity is not an aspect of another existent.  Existents such as [[attribute]]s, actions, [[relationship]]s are simply aspects of an entity (or [[mental existent]]) that we have mentally isolated.

Entities qualify as [[οὐσία|]], in both senses of the term: as an ultimate subject and also having individual and separate existence.

Entities have [[properties]].
Entities have [[action-potential]]s in relation to certain conceived outcomes.

Most entities are [[assemblies|assemblage]] of other entities.
* a thing made out of a [[material substance]]
** a thing made out of a [[composite]]
* a [[functional system]], such as a [[living organism]]

See [[ontological categories]]

* [[inference of existent]]
|! hierarchical classification:  | memory-mapping ⊃ [[virtual memory]] space |
|! differentia: | reserved for running the [[kernel]], kernel extensions, and [[device driver]]s |
[[Sentences|sentence]] convey [[proposition]]s.  Wording conveys the relation of the proposition to other propositions, stated and implied.

to aid the task of memorizing exact wording:
* What does the wording indicate about the [[mental integration]] encoded?
* How does the particular wording distinguish the proposition from similar ones?
* Rebuild the sentence in parts, starting with [[the basic thought|the art of plain talk]].
* For a [[definition]], build a [[nexus of mental pathways]].
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relationship between a subordinate clause and a main clause

[[conditional connectives in the English language]]:
[[temporal connectives in the English language]]
[[spatial connectives in the English language]]
[[connectives of concession in the English language]]
[[causal connectives in the English language]]
[[connectives relating to purpose in the English language]]

> so that

> as though

> whoever
> whichever
> whatever
|! hierarchical classification:  | measurement of performance ⊃ continuously [[monitoring resources|system administration: resource monitoring]] |
|! differentia: | over time sufficient to determine rates of change in the utilization of system resources |

You categorize resource utilization in terms of changes in workload, enabling you to project potential resource shortages and to set goals for increasing capacity.

For situations where only one major application is run, it is possible to determine the impact of an additional individual running the same application as everyone else.
There are certain particular judgements with the property that no reasonable person would deny them. [Bob Kolker, "Absolute Certainty"]

Consent does NOT mean [[social contract]]
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* [[SiteTitle]]
* [[SiteSubtitle]]
A conjecture is warranted when it is connected to reality given the present [[context]] of knowledge.  

If a conjecture integrates known phenomena, [[predicts|prediction]] a wide variety of phenomena and does not contradict any [[known|knowledge]] [[fact]], it is worth [[experiment|experimentation]]

An [[arbitrary]] proposition is a proposition that isn't warranted.

* [[necessary vs contingent]]
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[[subject|propositional subject]] or [[predicate]] of a [[proposition]]

a valid combination of [[concept]]s refers to a selection of [[unit]]s, including all of their [[characteristics]]

|! part of:       | [[proposition]] |

attempts at grasping the use of a term, arranged in order of ascending completion:
* [[prototype]] -- risks [[frozen abstraction]]
* [[exemplar]] -- specific instance used to weight expectation that future instance has a property
* [[objective|objectivity]] [[definition]] -- [[rules of definition]], [[how to define a concept]]
* etymological uses giving rise to metaphor
* [[conceptual nexus of knowledge]]
* [[unit]]s of a [[concept]]

> If one imagines every concept having a little dial on it, and you turn the dial to control how far you reduce it at a given moment of awareness. For a lot of things you don't turn it at all, but sometimes you have to check it, maybe just to the definition (and what it implies) maybe further down.
~Fawkes, from objectivismonline

theories of terms (see [[universals]]):
* natural kind
** designates object or class [[William J. Taylor's views on terms]]
** represents some ontological category [[Adam L. Jones' views on terms]]
* conceptual
** denotes concept [[William W. Atkinson's views on terms]]
* "agnostic"
** sign of what has become an object of thought [[Laurence Johnstone's views on terms]] -- term is sign of what has become an object of thought
** denote or signify classes of individuals [[George H. Smith's views on terms]]
chosen by supernatural
caretaker of earth
plaything of forces (see [[free will]])
A group is a [[mathematical set]], G, together with an operation • (called the group law of G) that combines any two elements a and x to form another element, denoted a • x

e.g. a • x = b where a, x, b are elements of a group with the group operation •

[[properties of mathematical groups]]
[[solving a group equation]]
[[types of mathematical groups]]

* [[mathematics]]

|! hierarchical classification: | wireless [[authentication]] standards |
|! purpose: | provide authentication for access to wireless networks |
|! means: | [[Temporal Key Integrity Protocol]] |

* WPA Personal Shared Key -- passphrase of 8 to 63 ASCII characters
* Enterprise -- security certificates checked against a [[RADIUS|Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service]] server

|! hierarchical classification: | computer-related device |
|! differentia: | connected to a host computer, but not part of it |
|! purpose:   | put information into or get information out of a computer |

* any [[secondary storage]] device
* printers
* display / monitor
* input devices, e.g. keyboard, mouse
* imaging devices, e.g. scanners

conceptual antecedents:
* [[computer processor]]
* input
* output

conceptual derivatives:
* [[controller (computing)]]
condition of system such that a program tries to access [[pages|page (computing)]] that are not currently mapped to physical memory, i.e. not currently located in RAM

condition of system such that a program tries to access an [[inactive page]].

The sequence events involving a page fault:
# The CPU presents the desired virtual memory address to the [[MMU|Memory Management Unit]]
# But the MMU has no [[translation|page table]] for the address
# The [[operating system]] makes the required page accessible at a location in [[physical memory|main memory]]
# The MMU [[interrupts the CPU|processor interrupt]] and causes the page fault handler to be executed
# The page fault handler determines how to resolve the page fault:
** find desired page and read it into memory, e.g. page of code
** discover that desired page is in RAM but not allocated to the current process and reconfigure the MMU to point to it
** Point to a special page of zeros and allocate a new page for the possibility that the process needs to write to the page
** get the desired page from somewhere else

Contrast this sequence with the operating system killing a process because of an [[illegal memory access]] 
If factor X is never found before phenomenon P, then X may be preventing or limiting P when operating in tandem with another existent.

* [[Hostile Instances]]

!!the next step:
Discover what happens when you introduce X into an instance nearly identical to an instance where P would occur.
results from the utilization of an internal energy source integral to the [[agent|functional system]] according to a directive mechanism

on the energy of self-generated action
* The energy resources must be prior to any one kind of action.
* The energy must be immediately available for alternative actions.  If there were no alternative actions, would it have to do the one action because of some outside disturbance, which is clearly NOT a self-generated action?
* The agent must possess the energy itself which it can then route to any of a number of different kinds of actions, according to the functioning of a directive mechanism(s)
* The self-generated aspect comes about from the highly ordered integration of energy-fed reactions which are themselves energy-releasing. 

Self-generated action is the fundamental similarity between [[vegetative|vegetative action]] and [[purposeful action]]s
It is implicit in those types of [[teleological action]]
* Some conditions are subject to change.  Beware of [[unstable invariance]], which is [[possible]] for any [[generalization]] whose cause is unknown; i.e. [[invariance]] CANNOT be used to generalize
* You can't know all the conditions of a situation.  That would be omniscience.  This renders Mill's rules as hypothetical when there is insufficient [[context]] for a [[generalization]].  What you really need is a way to identify, summarize, and remember the [[context]] that gave rise to the question in the first place.
* Covariation doesn't tell you direction of causation.  But it will provide reason to investigate further.
* Covariation is discovered within certain bounds.  Those bounds should be used to help identify the context under which the covariation holds.
A metaphysical [[fact]] is independent of the exercise of [[human volition|free will]].
contrast: [[metaphysically given]] fact vs the man-made

some metaphysical facts
* facts about [[existence]]
* facts about the [[Totality|on the sum of everything]]
* the fact of [[causality]]

* [[necessary vs contingent]]
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* identifying data as [[counter-evidence|evidence]]
* grasping that a certain phenomenon that is without explanation challenges the paradigm
* checking the logical support
* identifying negative consequences -- undesirable effects, problems
* identifying that a similar [[method]] failed and attempting to figure out why

* [[causal reasoning]]
* [[epistemology: standards/criteria]]
* future requirements
** maintain high savings rate
** get better paying job
|! aspect of: | [[thinking]] |
|! purpose:  | [[achieving/maintaining focus]] |

The domain bounds the scope of //what// you will think about.  

At first, you do not have all that you need to have about it.  You only have some of it.  You must *complete* the domain.

How to assess domain completion:
* evaluate clarity
* check summary against what you know about it
* check connections between knowledge of [[causality]] and [[teleological hierarchy]]

* mental contents of a process of thought
>"You can achieve certainty within known ("computable and measurable") parameters. 
~Fred Weiss, "Can the false be known but not the true?"

* [[context]]
An existent-path is an existent's entire course of [[change]].  It includes all of its [[interaction]]s with other things, known and unknown.

The way that two existent-paths unite or divide marks [[causation]].  Existent-paths are inter-related.  

attributes of existent paths
* arc between two vertexes (see graph theory)
* persistent vs transient
* feedback
* continuous vs discrete
* directionality
* order

* [[existent and change]]
* [[causality]]
* [[totality|on the sum of everything]]
how instructions are used:
* [[imperative programming]]
* [[declarative programming]]
** [[functional programming]]

how instructions flow:
* spaghetti code
* [[structured programming]]
** [[modular programming]]

how programs are driven:
* [[event-driven programming]]
how a thing can be described:
* its [[definition]]
* emphasize some part of its [[definition]]
* identify a non-essential characteristic that is true of all instances
** identify [[proprium]]
* in terms of its relationship to something else
* in terms of action
> A "basic truth" in a demonstration is an immediate proposition.  An immediate proposition is one which has no other proposition prior to it.
~Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, book 1, chapter 2
[[web browser]]
> "volitionally adhering to reality by following certain rules of method, a method based on facts and appropriate to man's form of cognition" 
~Leonard Peikoff

|! aspect of: | [[certainty]] |

aspects of objectivity:
* volitional [[adherence to reality|truth]]
* following certain [[rules of method]]
** [[logic]]
* recognizing [[hierarchy of knowledge]]:
** Any knowledge beyond first-level abstractions involves [[abstraction from abstractions]].
** [[definition]]s identify logical relationships among concepts and preserve [[hierarchy of concepts|conceptual hierarchy]]
** [[hierarchical reduction]] tests [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]]
* recognizing [[context]] to preserve contact with reality, given the nature of [[abstraction]]
** consciousness is identification
** recognizing [[knowledge as a unity]]

* [[context-keeping]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[systematically organized|system of abstract thought]] [[unity]] of [[knowledge]] |
|! differentia: | applicable in a wide variety of circumstances |
|! by means of: |  [[abstract|abstraction]] [[explanatory|explanation]] [[principle]]s |

[[scientific theory]]

A theory is produced in part [[through the non-contradictory integration|integration of facts]] of phenomenological [[fact]]s.  All antecedent [[concept]]s must be valid.

aspects of theories:
* logical structure:
** foundations
*** [[definition]]s of important [[concept]]s
*** [[first-level generalization]]
*** [[postulate]]
** entailed by foundations
*** [[theorem]]
*** [[explanation]]
*** [[prediction]]
* [[on the "truth" of theories]]:
* [[underdetermined]] theories 
* preserving [[objectivity]]

also related:
* [[epistemology: standards/criteria]]

* errors in regard to the evidence for a conclusion:
** overestimation of factual information
** overgeneralization
** hasty generalizing -- unwarranted from particulars
* [[errors during integration]]
** premature integration
** overzealous integration
*** attempting to integrate incompatibles (e.g. attempting to equate opposites through a [[package-deal]])
** overestimating the value of [[explanation]]s of past data
* errors in regard to quantitative data
** mistaking statistically [[random]] data for meaningful measurement
** ludic fallacy -- "believing that unstructured randomness resembles the structured randomness found in games"
** statistical regress fallacy -- believing that the structure of probability can be delivered from a set of data
* mistaken [[explanation]]s
** post hoc ergo propter hoc
** narrative fallacy -- creating a story post-hoc so an [[event]] seems to have an identifiable [[causal mechanism]]
** distortion of historical events
* demonstrative adjective pronoun -- directly points out person or object
* distributive adjective pronoun
** e.g. "each", "every", "either", "neither"
* indefinite adjective pronoun
** e.g. "any", "all", "few", "none", "some", "several", "one", "other", "another"
* possessive 
** [[absolute possessive pronoun]]
|!type of: |[[Abelian group]]s |
|!differentia: |elements form a group |
* [[sentence]]
** [[grammar]]
*** [[English grammar]]
** [[vocabulary]]
* [[paragraph]]
* [[examples of portmanteaus]]
* [[description]]
* [[metaphor]]

measurements of use:
* purity
* perspicuity -- how plain to understanding speech or writing is by means of clear, unequivocal language
* conciseness
* exactness with respect to a fact
|! hierarchical classification: | means for securing data ⊃ [[cryptographic|cryptography]] objects ⊃ [[public key certificate]] |
|! differentia:              | uses [[Secure Sockets Layer]]      |

[[anatomy of an SSL certificate]]
|! hierarchical classification: | authentication frameworks for network communication  ⊃ proprietary [[EAP|Extensible Authentication Protocol]] method |
|! purpose:                      | establish and secure session between client and 802.11 Cisco wireless Access Point |
|! by means of:               | [[WEP|Wired Equivalent Privacy]] keys |
When [[browsing a network]], you will see a browse list.

A browse list keeps track of what machines are active on the network

Something has to store the browse list.  Other machines refer to that list.  They defer the power over the browse list to that [[master browser]].

Computers "hold an election" on who will be the Master Browser on the LAN (i.e. on the subnet)
i.e. who will maintain the browse list
|! hierarchical classification: | [[variable|variable (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | applies to all instances of a [[class|class (computing)]] |

Every [[object|object (computing)]] instantiating the class will have the value of the class variable.

This is similar to how a specific make and model of a car requires a tire with specific measurements, though characteristics like tread shape may vary.
Identify that an interruption has occurred.

some interruptions can be politely delayed; encapsulate!
# What answers did you generate recently?
# What open issues are there, possibly to hand off for incubation?
# What's next?

State what you're involved with and indicate its scope.  Ask whether the new issue can wait for a little bit.  If not, what's so urgent?  The person get a minute to describe the issue and scope.

Judge relative priority of new task:
* If it's more important, go over your notes concerning the previous task and judge whether they're enough
* If it's not, apologize for not being able to deal with it right away and suggest a time to come back.  Then finish the step you're on.
|! hierarchical classification: | layer 3 [[network devices|network devices and technologies]] |
|! differentia:              | redirects packets from one interface of the device to another |
|! by means of:          | a routing table |
|! fundamental characteristic: | filters packets |
|! omit: | how packets are filtered |

filtering options:
* address
* protocol
* port


[[echein]] (condition resulting from having been acted on):

* using [[access control list]]s to filter packets
* strong protocol authentication ⊂ help prevent IP spoofing

* allowable port speeds
An emotion is a value-judgment expressed in the form of bodily states.

process for identifying and validating them:
# What is the emotion?
# What is the object in reality most strongly connected to the emotion?
# What is the evaluation?
# What is the standard?
# What is distinct about the particular situation?
# Is the evaluation valid, given the particular facts of the particular situation?
# Given the progress from answering the above, what's the next step?
[[discovering what they are]]
[[making people happy]]
[[Grammar|grammar]] concerns relationships between words pertaining to conveying a thought.

English grammar uses [[inflection]] to distinguish structural relationships.

There are many ways to have groups of words:
* [[phrase]]
* [[clause|clause (grammar)]]
* [[sentence]]
** [[compound sentence]]
* [[paragraph]]

A sentence has parts.
* [[parts of speech]]
* parts of a sentence:
** [[subject|propositional subject]]
** [[predicate]], which sometimes has a [[direct object]] and even an [[indirect object]]
** [[adjuncts|adjunct (grammar)]], which serve an adverbial function

Some principles of grammar:
* [[subordination|subordination (grammar)]], which is established by means of [[connectives|connectives in the English language]]
** essence of a sentence vs. qualifying remarks
* [[parallelism|parallelism (grammar)]]
* [[emphasis|emphasis (grammar)]] -- mind the cognitive implications of order
* [[economy|economy (grammar)]] -- convey the most with the fewest
* [[variety]]
# evaluate operator to get procedure
# evaluate operand to get argument
# apply procedure to argument
** copy body of procedure, substituting the supplied arguments for the formal parameters of thep rocedure
** evaluate the resulting body

|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | existent in relation to the [[universal of inductive interest]] |
|! identification:           | man-made instrument makes sensible or rectifies |
|! demonstrates:         | the existence of subtler aspects  |
|! hierarchical classification: | optimization strategy for programming |

* tasks are given [[pointers|pointer (computing)]] to the same resource
a collection of [[files|computer file]] related to an [[application|application software]]

[[package management system]] uses a package to install an application or library
|! hierarchy of classification: | definite plan or scheme for automated systems ⊃ [[computer program]] |
|! differentia:           | locate and start [[application software]] |
|! fundamental characteristic: | manage shortcuts/links |

provides shortcuts to computer programs
stores the shortcuts in one place so they are easier to find
Quantity is measured
The result of integration is a mental combination of cognitive material constituting a [[unity]] through which facts can be reached.
integration as uniting a complexity of elements into a whole

The combination is reached through grasping [[similarities|similarity]] and differences

The recognition of relationship(s) contrasts integration against [[context-dropping]] and random associations.

|! hierarchical classification: | mental process  |
|! purpose:        | recognition or achievement of a [[unity]] |
|! aspect of:      | [[cognition]] |
|! prior actions: | [[differentiation]] of a group of [[unit]]s |
|! results in: | an inseparable sum forming a new mental unit |

integration of:
* integration of sensations into percepts; uniting such modalities as touch, sight, sound
* [[integration of units]], a step in the process of [[concept-formation]]
* [[integration of facts]]
* integrations of content decoded from spoken or written communication
** [[uniting propositions]]
** [[conceptual nexus of knowledge]]

into existing cognitive structures:
* conceptual assimilation
* logical assimilation

how to:
* [[how to ascend to a principle]]

for a better definition:
* [[towards a theory of integration]]
* [[Leonard Peikoff's views on integration]]

The input material for the process is provided by [[perception]] or [[concept-formation]]

* [[criteria for integration/unification]]
* [[errors during integration]]
* [[approaches to the issue of integration]]

* [[jigsaw puzzle]]

* By integrating the evidence, you learn to identify something [[as something|identity]].  You can [[predicate]].
* By integrating, you move from relationships among a set of pieces to a [[whole|knowledge as a unity]], enabling you to move among any of the pieces and from the subject to the particulars
# let resolve mental activity into object of [[attention]] and associated activities, so that each is accessible from the other
# products of the subconscious are to serve as seeds for additional objects of [[attention]]
# return to [[various objects of attention|mental workspace]], building on each assembly or assigning a [[standing order|standing orders for the subconscious]] to be checked for completion at another time
# sustain activities
** insofar as activities have a common goal, they must work together as an ensemble
** insofar as activities have separate goals, the least dominant goals should be identified and queued for return, even if the next cycle will suspend activity on part or all of an assembly ([[through setting up a specific means for recall|ensuring recall for a process of thought]] that does not include the use of working memory.
various measurements:
* [[algorithmic efficiency]]
|~ViewToolbar|+editTiddler +cloneTiddler > fields refreshTiddler changeToPublic changeToPrivate revisions syncing permalink references jump closeOthers < closeTiddler|
|~EditToolbar|+saveTiddler saveDraft -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler|
|~RevisionToolbar|> fields revert|
by reference to which we avoid circular reasoning, but more importantly, structure our philosophy [[hierarchically|hierarchy of knowledge]], recognizing the logical structure of justification, both in terms of empirical evidence and in terms of [[explanatory|explanation]] [[principle]]s
RID master

|! hierarchical classification: | [[Flexible Single Master Operations]] roles |
|! fundamental characteristics: | allocates [[RIDs|relative identifier]] to  [[DCs|domain controller]]  and processes RID pool requests from all DCs within a [[domain|network domain]] |
|! purpose: | assigning unique identifiers to [[security principal]] objects |

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* [[network domain]]
* [[domain controller]]
* [[security principal]]
* [[relative identifier]]

* the ONLY domain controller responsible for processing RID Pool requests from all domain controllers within a given domain.
* responsible for moving an object from one domain to another during an interdomain object move.
Form follows function.
Tolerances depend on processes.
Dimensioning depends on functionality.
Sizing of material form depends on resilience of materials.  (e.g. "Wall thickness depends on materials."
> "Whenever you tear an idea from its context and treat it as though it were a self-sufficient, independent item, you invalidate the thought process involved. If you omit the context, or even a crucial aspect of it, then no matter what you say it will not be valid . . . .
> A context-dropper forgets or evades any wider context. He stares at only one element, and he thinks, “I can change just this one point, and everything else will remain the same.” In fact, everything is interconnected. That one element involves a whole context, and to assess a change in one element, you must see what it means in the whole context.
~//Leonard Peikoff, “The Philosophy of Objectivism”  lecture series (1976), Lecture 5.//

types of context-dropping:
* [[context-dropping: range]]
* [[context-dropping: means]]
* [[context-dropping: necessary condition]]
> first
> second
> third
> next
> finally
> initially
> later
> in the first place
> secondly
an example of [[Leonard Peikoff's principle of two definitions]]

A1 -- the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, means and methods of knowledge.

We say that there are three approaches to epistemology, the intrinsic (mystic), the subjective (skeptic) and the objective (rational). All deal with the same subject and give guidance on it. And yet, the skeptic claims knowledge is impossible and the mystic says there is no human means to know about anything important apart from revelation. Epistemology follows the pattern.
"judging" -- mental function of affirming or denying some proposed connection between the [[unit]]s of [[concept]]s.

The process of judgment is expressed in language form using two [[term]]s which stand as symbols of concepts united by the copula, e.g. "to be".   

antecedent knowledge:
* [[proposition]]

* [[predication]]
* [[language and thinking]]
* [[mental integration]]
* [[William J. Taylor's views on integration]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: | compound of fields, i.e. a value that contains other values |
* [[straw man]]
* [[genetic fallacy]]
** [[appeal to misleading authority]]
* subjective fallacies
** [[appeal to subjective personal experience]]
** [[appeal to popularity]]
** [[emotional appeal]]
** [[guilt by association]]
* [[appeal to consequences]]
* [[argument by intimidation]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | [[mental processes]] ⊃ logical [[validation]] |
|! differentia: | statement supporting a [[conclusion]] |
|! purpose:    | persuasion |
|! aspect of:  | discourse |

forms of reasoning:
* [[induction]]
* [[deduction]] -- whose vehicle is the [[syllogism]]

[[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]

assessments of the process:
* soundness
* deductive validity
* [[Godel's incompleteness theorem]]

* [[conceptual errors]]
* [[informal logical errors]]

* [[premise]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental processes]] |
|! differentia:             | ascribing a [[characteristic|characteristics]] to every member of an [[open-ended set|the open-endedness of concepts]] |

For universal statements:
|! purpose:  | identify some fact that applies to every member of an unlimited class |
|! aspect of: | [[learning]] |
|! sequence of prior actions: | |
|! next: | summarize the result by means of a [[proposition]] |

The proposition omits such measurements as time and space.  Such omission is necessary for supporting an [[induction]].

Successive generalizations are "logically wider" than "narrower" generalizations in the sense of logical containment. 

Causal relationships are grasped through a process of [[omitting all particular measurements]] of entity-action situations and its sequent [[change]], including such measurements as time and space (see [[continuities necessary for supporting an induction]]).  In order to generalize, it is necessary to grasp the causal [[relationship]].

The format "All S is P" is known as a "type-A" universal affirmative proposition.

what a generalization can integrate:
* [[unit]]s or observations
** [[instances for quantitative generalization]]
* new or previously formed [[concept]]s

[[errors in inductive reasoning]]

[[criteria for generalization]]

generalizations in terms of relationship to [[context]]:
* by level of abstraction
** [[first-level generalization]]s
** [[Nth-level generalization|vertical integration]]
* by role in science
** [[directly empirical scientific law]]s
** [[higher-level explanatory law]]s
** scientific [[principle]] — deep integration specifying a general form for several explanatory laws
* by type of attribute involved
** [[quantitative generalizations|instances for quantitative generalization]], such as proportionality or [[equations|mathematical equation]]
** qualitative generalizations

aspects of generalization
* the [[system]] level it applies to

[[what generalization can accomplish]]
Any thing that exists is no more than what it is.  It extends no further than it does.  It travels no faster than reality allows.  It cannot be modified outside the parameters of its container.  

also related:
* [[metaphysics]]
* [[axiom]]
* [[axiomatic concepts]]
|! hierarchical classification: |
|! differentia:               | the establishment of shared security attributes between two network entities |
|! by means of:           |  |
|! differentiated from: |
|! purpose:                  | support secure communication |


what's involved:
* cryptographic algorithm and mode
* traffic encryption key
* parameters for the network data to be passed over the connection
quantity invariant with respect to changes in another quantity
a • x = b

elements a and b are elements of a group with the group operation symbolized by •

| 1 | inverse to both sides | A • (a • x) = A • b |
| 2 | associative to left side | (A • a) • x = A • b |
| 3 | identity to left side | x = A • b |

conceived occurrence that is [[possible]] but not yet [[actual|state of affairs]]
independent of consciousness
adhere to facts of reality
object sets terms of thought

see [[objectivity]]
How does a given [[proposition]] stand in relation to the previous proposition?

* one clarifies another
* one narrows the scope of another
** one specifies a measurement having bearing on application of another
* one logically supports another
** [[evidence]] supporting [[premise]]
** [[premise]] supporting [[conclusion]]
** one logically qualifies another ([[truth-table relations between propositions]]
* one is implied by another
** one is a [[corollary]] of another
* one clashes with the other

Grammatically, these can be [[emphasized|emphasis (grammar)]] through [[transitional expressions]] in [[sentence]]s.

The integration of all these relations results in a [[unity|uniting propositions]].
* [[standard of objectivity|objectivity]]
** [[context-keeping]]
** [[knowledge as a unity]]
* [[characteristics of knowledge]]
* [[epistemic norms]]
* [[norms for definition]]
* [[criteria for hypothesis-formation]]
* inductive:
** [[criteria for integration/unification]]
** [[criteria for causal inference]]
** [[characteristics of causal necessity]]
** [[characteristics of scientific law]]
** [[rules of inductive reasoning]]
** [[underdetermined]] theories

* [[hypothesis]]
* [[causality]]
* [[theory]]
* errors:
** [[conceptual errors]]
** [[errors in inductive reasoning]]
>That contrary or opposing [[fact]]s are equally instructive for the discovery of causes with favourable ones.
>For instance: when air is confined with moistened iron filings in a close vessel over water, its bulk is diminished, by a certain portion of it being abstracted and combining with the iron, producing rust. And, if the remainder be examined, it is found that it will not support flame or animal life. This contrary fact shows that the cause of the support of flame and animal life is to be looked for in that part of the air which the iron abstracts, and which rusts it.

* [[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
In network security, a vulnerability is a weakness that can be engage to affect enterprise security

weakness in:
* hardware
* software 
** security patches
* process
* people

tools for identifying vulnerabilities:
* [[port scanner]]
* [[vulnerability scanner]]
* [[protocol analyzer]]
* network mapper

To close vulnerabilities, you will need [[controls|types of controls to mitigate network security risk]].
2005 Jan 21  12:34

predictability of [[emergent properties]]

Look for [[causality]], i.e. constituents and their properties.
Classify interactions.
Classify large scale patterns.

Some patterns only persist when //disturbed//, otherwise they flash static and collapse.

Federal Price Gouging Prevention Act

Makes it unlawful for any person to sell crude oil, gasoline, natural gas, or petroleum distillates at a price that: (1) is unconscionably excessive; or (2) indicates the seller is taking unfair advantage unusual market conditions or the circumstances of an emergency to increase prices unreasonably.

"unconsciously excessive"?  By what standard?
"unusual market conditions"?  By what criteria?
"unfair advantage"?  By what standard?
a [[mathematical group]] that has commutativity, i.e. a • b = b • a

* [[properties of mathematical groups]]
* [[modes of consciousness]]
* [[attention]]
* [[managing contents of consciousness]], such as managing/juggling  [[mental inventory]]
* [[certifications]]
* [[scripting and programming]]
* [[network security]]
various methodologies:
* [[essentialism]]
* [[rationalism vs empiricism]]
* [[holism]]
* [[concept-driven hypothetico-deductive method]]
* [[Objectivism|objectivity]], which rests on an [[objective theory of concepts|Ayn Rand's theory of concepts]]
** [[Harry Binswanger's methodology]]
* ???
** adjusting action in accordance with a conceived state of action, a [[being-at-work]] becoming better
** LISP's tactic of designing a function such that it includes itself

claims to be a methodology but isn't:
* synthesis of opposites

lack of methodology:
* [[pragmatism]]
* disintegration -- [[postmodernism]], [[post-structuralism]]
[[the end of a law]]

Written law isn't [[natural law|natural law (politics)]]

>"Before you become concerned with writing and enforcing objective law, the state must first prove that there is a need to create law on the subject matter."
~David Odden

[[subjective laws]]
"The qualities of bodies, which admit neither intension nor remission of degrees, and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever."
~Newton's 3rd rule of reasoning

|! hierarchical classification: | [[cryptographic|cryptography]] algorithms ⊃ [[hash function]] |
|! purpose:                           | provide a method for promoting data security |
|! weakness:                        | |
slight quantitative change gives rise to a qualitative change e.g.: ice into water, repeated sound into tone

Thresholds serve as [[leads for discovering the cause|threshold instances]]
|! hierarchical classification: | network admin methods ⊃ [[Network Address Translation]] |
|! differentia:              | rewrite the source address of the packet |
|! typical usage:         | change the private (rfc1918) address/port into a public address/port for packets leaving the network |

* many internal IP addresses, same external IP address

When was the last time you thought about something for a whole hour?
a whole day?
a little bit every day for the course of a month? for a year?

* All P are Q
* All M are at the intersection of X and Y
* R(A,B) for all A and B
|! genus:       | [[address space]] |
|! differentia: | for locating instructions and data in [[memory|computer memory]] |
The [[concept]] of "awareness" reduces to "experience", which is a first-order concept.
~Dave Odden
|! hierarchical classification:       | sequences of programmed instructions ⊃ [[light-weight process|light-weight process (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | smallest that can be managed independently by an [[operating system]] [[scheduler|scheduling (computing)]] |
|! aspect of:  | computer processing |

[[keisthai]] (situation/position resulting from action):
* born
* ready (to be run) aka runnable -- reached by the start method
* running -- when the thread is assigned to [[computer processor]]
* blocked -- when the thread attempts to perform a task that cannot be completed immediately
* waiting -- when the thread encounters a code that it cannot execute yet
** deadlock -- 
** indefinite postponement aka starvation -- high priority threads postpone low priority threads, preventing them from ever being executed
* sleeping -- when the thread refrains from being ready
* dead -- terminated and to be disposed of, e.g. a dead Java thread waiting for the garbage collector

When a thread waits until another thread it's dependent on finishes executing, the dependent thread calls the join method of the thread undergoing execution

[[synchronization of threads|synchronization (computing)]]
e.g. ensures that the output of video playback isn't choppy despite how busy the processor is

parts of a thread:
* program counter
* stack
* set of [[register|processor register]] values
|! hierarchical classification: | [[network devices and technologies]] ⊃ systems for handling intrusion |
|! by means of:          | monitoring packet exchange between machines |
|! purpose:                 | detecting packets that got passed the firewall |

* [[Snort]], but Snort can do [[prevention|network intrusion prevention system]] too
This theory of universals holds that particulars imperfect reflect some sort of ideal form, which can be known through such things as mathematics.

originators: Plato, ?
view on the universe: imperfection
view on human beings: disorder to be organized by philosophy
* administrative safeguards
* technical safeguards
* physical safeguards
|! hierarchical classificaiton:    | grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish where, to where, or from where a state or action happened or existed |

> She sat on the table.
Variation in the scope of [[attention]] gives rise to several distinguishable modes for [[learning]] from educational material:
* pay attention to everything; consciously relate the pieces of the presentation
* determine what should be done with the information
* develop [[conceptual hierarchy]], i.e. through grasping similarities and differences with the [[unit]]s of previous knowledge and performing [[hierarchical reduction]] on the least grounded [[concept]]s
* [[horizontally integrate|horizontal integration]] ➞ form [[questions|questioning]] for new leads
satisfies ALL [[my criteria for friendships]]

[[relationship criteria: doesn't let me neglect my needs for her sake]]
[[relationship criteria: sensible philosophy]]
[[rational psychological-epistemology]]
[[similar sense of life]]
[[relationship criteria: grounds of physical intimacy]]
[[settles conflicts with little drama]]
[[takes serious feelings seriously]]
|! hierarchical classification:  | techniques for the manaement of computer resources ⊃ [[memory management]] techniques ⊃ [[virtual memory]] |
|! differentia: | where [[virtual memory]] is divided into [[pages|page (computing)]] |

Only the parts of a program required for a task are put into memory.  The other parts are kept on disk.

This is how paged virtual memory is able to exceed the maximum size of the [[physical memory|main memory]] 

If you merely swapped data, a byte at a time, both the disk and physical memory would become quickly fragmented.

[[Paging|paging (computing)]] decreases the fragmentation on backing store because the backup to disk occurs in increments of pages rather than increments of bytes.  

The [[paging technique|paging (computing)]] also decreases the fragmentation of physical memory because the system keeps pages in memory rather than bytes.  The fact about whether a page is in memory or not is accounted for using flags in the [[page table]].  

If a page is legal but [[not in memory|inactive page]], a [[page fault]] occurs.  
If it's [[illegal|illegal memory access]], the [[operating system]] kills the [[process|process (computing)]].
* value to organization
* value to competition
* replacement cost
* original cost
* maintenance costs
* how it contributes to profit
|! hierarchical classification: | [[data structure]]s ⊃ [[data type]]s |

characterized by:
* the operations that may be performed on it
* mathematical constraints on the effects (and possibly cost) of those operations

[[conceptual subdivision]]s of abstract data types:
* [[stack (computing)]]
* [[map (computing)]] aka [[associative array]] aka [[dictionary (computing)]]
* [[list (computing)]]
* [[tree (computing)]]
** [[binary tree (computing)]]
** [[heap (computing)]]
* [[string (computing)]]
* [[graph (computing)]]
|! hierarchical classification: | components of [[operating system]]s |
|! differentia:     | the bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level |
|! by means of: | [[inter-process communication]] mechanisms and [[system call]]s |
|! purpose:        | manage system's resources |

examples of what kernels do:
* make [[processor(s)|computer processor]] available
* make I/O resources available
* allocate [[computer memory]]
* [[schedule|scheduling (computing)]] [[processes|process (computing)]]
* logging

antecedent knowledge for [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]]:
* data processing done at the hardware level:
** [[CPU|computer processor]]
** [[computer memory]]
** devices

what kernels contain:
* [[scheduler (computing)]]

You can move [[device driver]]s between two instances of the same kernel

variation in the way a kernel could get started:
* a [[boot loader|boot loader (computing)]] loads the kernel
* control of the system is passed to an active partition containing the [[operating system]] in lieu of the former
|! hierarchical classification: | [[virtual memory]] area |
|! differentia: | where all user mode applications work |

This memory can be swapped out when necessary.
> no matter how
> notwithstanding
> in spite of
> even if
> although
> though
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|! hierarchical classification:           | hardware components of computer systems |
|! differentia:     | executes primitive instructions of a [[computer program]] |
|! by means of: | manipulating representations |
|! differentiated from: | activities of computers |
|! purpose:        | to initiate further machine action culminating in useful output |
|! aspect of:      | [[computer architecture]] |

primitive operations of the system on behalf of programs:
* arithmetical
* logical
* input/output

In electronic processors, there are many switches for controlling which electronic pathways are active and which are not.  Different processors have different systems of gates (embodied as transistors) because there are many ways to organize gates into a functioning computer.  

what a processor does:
# fetch instruction (from memory, usually) for what the CPU is to do
# decode instruction, i.e. determine significance of parts in relation to other portions of the CPU
# process it according to instructions in [[memory|computer memory]] by means of connecting relevant components
# send out a result

* [[processor register]]s

the processor as a finite resource:
* [[processor utilization]]
* [[operating system]] consumes [[processing power]], even though it might not report system I/O related processing
* How much CPU load is originating from [[operating system]] overhead?
* CPU's have a finite number of [[processor register]]s.  Nearly all operations performed by the CPU involve the registers in one way or another.

variation in composition:
* Processors with [[cache|processor cache]]

kinds of processor systems:
* [[symmetric multiprocessing]]
kinds of memory:
* short-term memory
** switching [[context]] -- people have trouble after 4 items; working memory is the bottleneck of [[thinking]]
* spontaneous recall, e.g.:
** recalling essentials necessary for governing activity throughout the day
** recalling previous informational state according to essential similarities with the most recent informational state
* [[recollection]]
* [[prospective memory]]
* [[address space]]
** situations where a thing can replace another thing previously occupying a box

> before, earlier, recently
> after, afterwards, subsequently, later
> at last
> currently, during, while, meanwhile, in the meantime, now, simultaneously
> immediately 
> at length,
> next, subsequently, and then
> when
|! hierarchical classification: | mental processing of written material |
|! differentia: | package and condense information |
|! purpose:   | prepare for a [[conceptual nexus of knowledge]] |
|! complement: | formulate questions whose answer lies in paragraph summarized |

|! part of the process of: | [[reading for understanding]] |
|! prior actions: | [[conceptual reading]] ← separate new from old ← [[reading for diction]] ← identify cognitively necessary segments |
|! next:               | [[logical reading]] |

process for outlining the structure of a work:
# For each [[paragraph]], write a [[summary sentence]].
# Organize summary sentences into a high-level paragraph, using [[transitional expressions]] appropriate to proper [[development|development of a paragraph]] and [[flow|order among sentences]].
# Write a summary sentence for each section of a chapter based on the above.
# Write a summary sentence for each chapter of a part of a work based on the above.
|''Description''|Provides a following macro|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceTiddlerIconsPlugin ErrorHandler|
Tag a tiddler with "follow" to express a list of followers.
Using the {{{<<followTiddlers X>>}}}
will reveal the number of tiddlers with name X in the set of spaces the *current* user viewing your space follows.
{{{<<following jon>>}}} will list all the users following Jon.
{{{<<followers jon>>}}} will list all the followers of jon.
{{{<linkedTiddlers>>}}} will list all tiddlers across TiddlySpace linked to the current tiddler
{{{<linkedTiddlers follow:yes>>}}} will list all tiddlers across TiddlySpace that come from your list of followers
adds spaceLink view type {{{<<view server.bag spaceLink>>}}} creates a link to the space described in server.bag
{{{<<view server.bag spaceLink title>>}}} makes a link to the tiddler with title expressed in the field title in space server.bag
If no name is given eg. {{{<<following>>}}} or {{{<<follow>>}}} it will default the current user.
.followTiddlersList li {

.followButton {
	width: 2em;

.followTiddlersList li .siteIcon {
	width: 48px;

#sidebarTabs .followers li a,
.followers .siteIcon,
.followers .siteIcon div {
	display: inline;

.followTiddlersList li .externalImage, .followTiddlersList li .image {
	display: inline;

.scanResults li {
	list-style: none;
(function($) {

var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var currentSpace =;

var shadows = config.shadowTiddlers;
config.annotations.ScanTemplate = "This tiddler is the default template used in the display of tiddlers founding using the tsScan macro. To access attributes use the view macro e.g. {{{<<view title text>>}}}";
shadows.ScanTemplate = "<<view modifier SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view title link>>";
shadows.FollowersTemplate = "<<view server.bag SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view server.bag spaceLink>>";
shadows.FollowingTemplate = "<<view title SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view title spaceLink>>";
shadows.FollowTiddlersBlackList = "";
shadows.FollowTiddlersHeading = "There are tiddlers in spaces you follow using the follow tag which use the title <<view title text>>";
shadows.FollowTiddlersTemplate = ["* <<view SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> ",
	"<<view spaceLink title external:no>> modified by <<view modifier spaceLink>> ",
	"in the <<view spaceLink>> space (<<view modified date>> @ <<view modified date 0hh:0mm>>).\n"].join("");

var name = "StyleSheetFollowing";
shadows[name] = "/*{{{*/\n%0\n/*}}}*/".
	format(store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##StyleSheet"));
store.addNotification(name, refreshStyles);

// provide support for sucking in tiddlers from the server
tiddlyspace.displayServerTiddler = function(src, title, workspace, callback) {
	var adaptor = store.getTiddlers()[0].getAdaptor();
	var localTitle = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(title, workspace);
	var tiddler = new Tiddler(localTitle);
	tiddler.text = "Please wait while this tiddler is retrieved...";
	tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true";
	src = story.displayTiddler(src || null, tiddler.title);
	tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
		var context = {
			host:, // TODO: inherit from source tiddler?
			workspace: workspace,
			headers: { "X-ControlView": "false" }
		var getCallback = function(context, userParams) {
			var tiddler = context.tiddler;
			tiddler.title = localTitle;
			story.refreshTiddler(localTitle, null, true); // overriding existing allows updating
			if(callback) {
				callback(src, tiddler);
		adaptor.getTiddler(title, context, null, getCallback);

tiddlyspace.scroller = {
	runHandler: function(title, top, bottom, height) {
		var i;
		var handlers = tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers;
		var tidEl = story.getTiddler(title);
		if(tidEl) {
			var topEl = $(tidEl).offset().top + 20;
			if(top === false || (topEl > top && topEl < bottom)) {
				var h = handlers[title];
				for(i = 0; i < h.length; i++) {
		} else {
	clearHandlers: function(title) {
		tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] = [];
	registerIsVisibleEvent: function(title, handler) {
		tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] = tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] || [];
	init: function() {
		this.handlers = {};
		this.interval = window.setInterval(function() {
			var top = $(window).scrollTop();
			var height = $(window).height();
			var bottom = top + height;
			var title;
			for(title in tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers) {
				if(title) {
					tiddlyspace.scroller.runHandler(title, top, bottom, height);
		}, 2000); // every 2 seconds check scroll position

var followMacro = config.macros.followTiddlers = {
	locale: {
		followListHeader: "Here are tiddlers from spaces you follow using the follow tag which use this title.",
		noTiddlersFromFollowers: "None of the spaces you follow contain a tiddler with this name.",
		errorMessage: "There was a problem retrieving tiddlers from the server. Please try again later."
	init: function() {
		followMacro.lookup = {};
	followTag: "follow",
	getHosts: function(callback) {
		tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
			callback(, tiddlyspace.getHost(status.server_host, "%0"));
	getBlacklist: function() {
		return store.getTiddlerText("FollowTiddlersBlackList").split("\n");
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var containingTiddler = story.findContainingTiddler(place).getAttribute('tiddler');
		var title = (args.anon && args.anon[0]) || tiddler.fields["server.title"] || tiddler.title;
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		var user = params[1] || false;
		if(tid) {
			followMacro.makeButton(place, {
				url: "/search?q=title:%22" + encodeURIComponent(title) + "%22",
				containingTiddler: containingTiddler,
				blacklisted: followMacro.getBlacklist(), title: title, user: user,
				consultFollowRelationship: (args.follow &&
					args.follow[0] === 'false') ? false : true });
	makeButton: function(place, options) { // this is essentially the same code in TiddlySpaceFollowingPlugin
		var title = options.title;
		var blacklisted = options.blacklisted;
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var btn = $('<div class="followButton" />').addClass("notLoaded").appendTo(place)[0];
		if(blacklisted.contains(title)) {
		} else {
			var user = options.user;
			window.setTimeout(function() { // prevent multiple calls due to refresh
				tiddlyspace.scroller.registerIsVisibleEvent(options.containingTiddler, function() {
					var mkButton = function(followers, ignore) {
						if(!followers && !ignore) {
						} else {
							$("<a />").appendTo(btn);
							var scanOptions = { url: options.url,
								spaceField: options.spaceField || "bag", template: null, sort: "-modified",
								callback: function(tiddlers) {
									followMacro.constructInterface(btn, tiddlers);
							if(!ignore) {
								scanOptions.showBags = followMacro._getFollowerBags(followers);
							scanOptions.hideBags = [tiddler.fields["server.bag"]];
							scanMacro.scan(null, scanOptions, user);
					if(options.consultFollowRelationship) {
					} else {
						mkButton([], true);
			}, 1000);
	constructInterface: function(container, tiddlers) {
		var txt = tiddlers.length;
		var className = txt > 0 ? "hasReplies" : "noReplies";
		var el = $(story.findContainingTiddler(container));
		var btn = $("<a />").addClass("followedTiddlers").text(txt).
			click(function(ev) {
			}).appendTo('<div class="followedTiddlers" />').appendTo(container)[0];
		$.data(btn, "tiddlers", tiddlers);
	followingOnClick: function(ev) {
		var target =;
		var locale = followMacro.locale;
		var el = $('<div class="followTiddlersList" />')[0];
		var popup = Popup.create(target,"div");
		$(popup).addClass("taggedTiddlerList followList").click(function(ev) { // make it so only clicking on the document outside the popup removes the popup
			if( != document) {
		var tiddlers = $.data(target, "tiddlers") || [];
		scanMacro.template(el, tiddlers.slice(0,1), "FollowTiddlersHeading");
		scanMacro.template(el, tiddlers, "FollowTiddlersTemplate");
		if(tiddlers.length === 0) {
			$("<li />").text(locale.noTiddlersFromFollowers).appendTo(el);
		return popup;
	_getFollowerBags: function(followers) { // XXX: private or not?
		return $.map(followers, function(name, i) {
			return name != currentSpace ? "%0_public".format(name) : null;
	getFollowers: function(callback, username) {
		// returns a list of spaces being followed by the existing space
		var followersCallback = function(user) {
			if(!user.anon) {
				scanMacro.scan(null, { 
					url: "/search?q=bag:%0_public tag:%1 _limit:%2".format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "title", template: null, cache: true,
					callback: function(tiddlers) {
						var followers = [];
						for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			} else {
		return !username ? tweb.getUserInfo(followersCallback) : followersCallback({ name: username });

var scanMacro = config.macros.tsScan = {
	init: function () {
		this.scanned = {};
	_tiddlerfy: function(jsontiddlers, options) {
		var tiddlers = [];
		var spaceField = options.spaceField || "bag"; // TODO: phase out use view types instead
		$.each(jsontiddlers, function(i, t) {
			var use = false;
			if(!options.showBags || (options.showBags && options.showBags.contains(t.bag))) {
				use = true;
			if(options.hideBags && options.hideBags.contains(t.bag)) {
				use = false;
			if(use) {
				var spaceName = t[spaceField];
				var tiddler = config.adaptors.tiddlyweb.toTiddler(t,;
				tiddler.fields[""] = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(spaceName);
		return tiddlers;
	_scanCallback: function(place, jsontiddlers, options) {
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		var tiddlers = scanMacro._tiddlerfy(jsontiddlers, options);
		if(options.sort) {
			tiddlers = store.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, options.sort);
		if(options.filter) {
			var _store = new TiddlyWiki();
			config.lastStore = _store;
			for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
				var clone = tiddlers[i];
				clone.title = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(clone.title, clone.fields['server.workspace']);
			tiddlers = _store.filterTiddlers(options.filter);
		if(place) {
			var list = $("<ul />").appendTo(place)[0];
			scanMacro.template(list, tiddlers, options.template);
			if(tiddlers.length === 0) {
				$("<li />").text(options.emptyMessage || locale.noone).appendTo(list);
		if(options.callback) {
	constructSearchUrl: function(host, options) {
		if(options.url) {
			return options.url;
		var inputs = options.searchValues;
		var tag = options.tag;
		var searchField = options.searchField || "title";
		var searchQuery = [];
		for(var i = 0; i < inputs.length; i++) {
			searchQuery.push('%0:"%1"'.format(searchField, inputs[i]));
		var query = searchQuery.join(" OR ");
		query = tag ? "(%0) AND tag:%1".format(query, tag) : query;
		query = options.query ? "%0;%1;".format(query, options.query) : query;
		query = options.fat ? "%0&fat=1".format(query) : query;
		return '%0/search?q=%1'.format(host, query);
	scan: function(place, options) { // TODO: make use of list macro with url filter
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		options.template = options.template ? options.template : "ScanTemplate";
		followMacro.getHosts(function(host, tsHost) {
			options = options ? options: {};
			var url = scanMacro.constructSearchUrl(host, options);
			if(options.cache && scanMacro.scanned[url]) {
				var tiddlers = scanMacro.scanned[url].tiddlers;
				var run = function(tiddlers) {
					scanMacro._scanCallback(place, tiddlers, options);
				if(tiddlers) {
				} else {
			} else {
				var callback = function(tiddlers) {
					scanMacro._scanCallback(place, tiddlers, options);
				if(scanMacro.scanned[url] && scanMacro.scanned[url].callbacks) {
				} else {
					scanMacro.scanned[url] = {
						callbacks: [callback]
					url: url,
					dataType: "json",
					success: function(tiddlers) {
						scanMacro.scanned[url].tiddlers = tiddlers;
						var callbacks = scanMacro.scanned[url].callbacks;
						while(callbacks.length > 0) {
					error: function(xhr) {
						$("<span />").addClass("annotation error").text(locale.error.format(xhr.status)).appendTo(place);
	template: function(place, tiddlers, template) { // TODO: make use of list macro.
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var item = $('<li class="spaceName" />').appendTo(place)[0];
			var spaceName = tiddler.fields[""] || "";
			var templateText = store.getTiddlerText(template).replace(/\$1/mg, spaceName);
			wikify(templateText, item, null, tiddler);
	getOptions: function(paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var options = { query: false, sort: false, tag: false, template: false, showBags: || false,
			hideBags: args.hide || false, filter: false, spaceField: "bag", searchField: "title", fat: false,
			emptyMessage: false };
		for(var name in args) {
			if(name != "name") {
				if(name == "fat") {
					options[name] = true;
				} else {
					options[name] = args[name][0];
		// if user has set searchField to modifier, then use the modifiers value if available otherwise use searchValues.
		var searchField = options.searchField;
		var searchValues = args[searchField] ? args[searchField] : args.searchValues;
		// if neither of those were used use the first parameter
		var defaultValues = tiddler ? [ tiddler.title ] : [];
		options.searchValues = searchValues ? searchValues : ( ? [[0]] : defaultValues);
		return options;
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("scanResults resultsArea").appendTo(place)[0];
		var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString, tiddler);
		scanMacro.scan(container, options);

var followersMacro = config.macros.followers = {
	locale: {
		loggedOut: "Please login to see the list of followers",
		noSupport: "We were unable to retrieve followers as your browser does not support following.",
		pleaseWait: "Please wait while we look this up...",
		error: "Error %0 occurred whilst retrieving data from server",
		noone: "None."
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var username = ?[0] : false;
		var container = $('<div class="followers" />').text(locale.pleaseWait).
		var followersCallback = function(user) {
			if(user.anon) {
				$("<span />").text(locale.loggedOut).appendTo(container);
			} else {
				var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString);
				$.extend(options, {
					url: "/search?q=title:@%0 OR title:%0 tag:%1 _limit:%2".
						format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "bag",
					template: options.template ? options.template : "FollowersTemplate"
				scanMacro.scan(container, options);
		return !username ? followersCallback({ name: currentSpace }) : followersCallback({ name: username });

var followingMacro = config.macros.following = {
	locale: {
		pleaseWait: followersMacro.locale.pleaseWait,
		loggedOut: "Please login to see who you are following",
		noSupport: followersMacro.locale.noSupport,
		error: followersMacro.locale.error,
		noone: followersMacro.locale.noone
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var locale = followingMacro.locale;
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var fat = args.fat ? true : false;
		var username = ?[0] : false;
		var container = $('<div class="following" />').text(locale.pleaseWait).
		var followingCallback = function(user) {
			if(user.anon) {
				$("<span />").text(locale.loggedOut).appendTo(container);
			} else {
				var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString);
				$.extend(options, {
					url: "/search?q=bag:%0_public tag:%1 _limit:%2".format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "title",
					template: options.template ? options.template : "FollowingTemplate"
				scanMacro.scan(container, options);
		return !username ? followingCallback({ name: currentSpace }) : followingCallback({ name: username });

var linkedMacro = config.macros.linkedTiddlers = {
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var title = params[0] || tiddler.fields["server.title"] || tiddler.title;
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		var containingTiddler = story.findContainingTiddler(place).getAttribute('tiddler');
		if(tid) {
			followMacro.makeButton(place, {
				spaceField: "recipe",
				url: "/bags/%0/tiddlers/%1/backlinks".format(tid.fields['server.bag'],
				blacklisted: followMacro.getBlacklist(),
				title: title,
				containingTiddler: containingTiddler,
				user: params[1] || false,
				consultFollowRelationship: args.follow ? true : false });

if(config.options.chkFollowTiddlersIsLinkedTiddlers) {
	merge(config.macros.followTiddlers, config.macros.linkedTiddlers);
	config.shadowTiddlers.FollowTiddlersHeading = "These are the other tiddlers that link to this tiddler.";

that a kind of thing does a kind of action
that a kind of thing has a kind of part
that a kind of thing has an attribute
that known properties have an effect

; that something is necessary for a known effect
: e.g. roundness helps rolling
# perception of action
** A child perceives a ball roll.
** The child perceives a marble roll.
** The child perceives a marble bounce and slide after tossing it a little too quickly for the table.
# abstraction of action
** The child abstracts rolling.
# application of concept
** The child tries to roll a rectangular block and grasps that it does not roll as well as the ball.
** The child tries to roll a triangular block and grasps that it rolls better than the rectangular block but worse than the ball.
** The child tries to roll a hexagonal block and grasps that it rolls better than the rectangular block but worse than the ball.
# abstraction of attribute that will later be recognized as causally connected
** The child also grasps that the hexagonal block and the ball are more similar to each other in terms of what he will later call "roundness" than the ball and the rectangular block.  
# ordering of existents
** ball > hexagonal block > triangular block > rectangular block
# ???
# [[generalization]] establishing a necessary condition
** The child reaches the [[generalization]] that roundness helps rolling.
a division of a [[hard drive|hard disk drive]] space that has been divided into separate spaces, each having its own size

Disk drives have partition tables.

what partitions can accomplish:
* separate the OS and program files from user files, allowing image [[backups|backing up storage]] of only the OS and programs
* separate [[virtual memory]] swapping/[[paging|paging (computing)]] from the [[file system]]
* separate cache and log files from other files

disadvantages of partitions:
* constrains space for user storage
* constrains disk performance for systems where data is accessed regularly from multiple partitions in parallel
* increases fragmentation because it lowers the average size of continuous free blocks on each partition
* moving data between partitions requires a copy, which will slow down the computer system

schemes for defining the physical location of a partition:
* [[Cylinder-Head-Sector]].  For CHS addressing, the partition size  is defined in terms of starting and ending cylinders
* block addressing

partition types for IBM compatible PC's:
* primary partition -- a partition taking up one of the four primary partition slots
* extended partition -- a partition including other partitions, allowing you to have more than four partitions
* logical partition -- a partition contained within an extended partition

partition type field: something about usage???
> indeed
> in fact
> in other words
> that is
> of course
> truly
* pursuing two or more courses of action where one clashes with another
* emotional irrationality (Refer to: [[emotional rationality]])
** letting yourself snap at people, even if you're defending a friend
* irrational psychological epistemology (Refer to: [[rational psychological-epistemology]])
** e.g. "checking out" from reality by jumping into a cave of activity

|! hierarchical classification:  | software performance measurements |
|! differentia:                    | how much of various types of [[resources|system administration: resource monitoring]] it consumes |
|! aspect of: | [[algorithm]] |

Gregory Chaitin proved that algorithm-compaction cannot be automated by a generalized algorithm; rather, it can only be done heuristically

heuristics supporting algorithmic efficiency:
* exhaustive search
* trial and error
* insight
* application of inductive reasoning
>"We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances."
~Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica, 1st rule of reasoning

* [[Newton's rule for assigning causes]], his 2nd rule of reasoning
* [[universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever]], his 3rd rule of reasoning
* [[Isaac Newton's views on induction]], which includes his 4th rule of reasoning
a specific combination of [[data structure]](s) and associated processing routines

various kinds of objects:
* any specific [[computer file]] is a collection of data and the associated read and write routines. 
* any instance of a [[class (computing)]] is an object
** [[objects in PHP]]

what an object contains:
* data fields -- similar to how a database record is composed of fields.
* program code fragments for //accessing// or //modifying// the object's data fields

what belongs to an object:
* properties -- [[variables|variable (computing)]] belonging to the object
* methods -- [[functions|function (computing)]] belonging to the object
<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="434 218 68 68"
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 478.39694 232.53705 L 478.39694 232.53705 
		C 477.1145 231.85132 475.77875 231.30147 474.41058 230.88734 L 474.41058 218.24994 L 461.58942 218.24994 
		L 461.58942 230.88734 C 460.22125 231.30147 458.8855 231.85132 457.60306 232.53705 L 448.66824 223.60214 
		L 439.6022 232.66814 L 448.53717 241.60304 C 447.8515 242.8854 447.30157 244.22116 446.88745 245.58936 
		L 434.25 245.58936 L 434.25 258.41052 L 446.88745 258.41052 
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		L 487.33176 223.60214 Z M 475.3328 244.66714 C 479.3825 248.71698 479.3825 255.2829 475.3328 259.33273 
		C 471.28296 263.3826 464.71704 263.3826 460.66724 259.33273 
		C 456.61737 255.2829 456.61737 248.71698 460.66724 244.66714 
		C 464.71704 240.61734 471.28296 240.61734 475.3328 244.66714" fill="#111"
|! aspect of: | computer processing |

the minimal set of data used by a [[task|task (computing)]] that must be saved to allow:
* [[interruption|interrupt (computing)]] at a given time
* continuation of the task
** at the point it has been interrupted and 
**at an arbitrary future date

Data can be stored in processor registers, memory, OS control registry, etc.

This preservation of data is analogous to the mind [[retaining the context]].
Does [[sentimentality]] in writing qualify as bad style?
Or is it not a style at all and simply bad writing?
I don't like Wagner's "style" but I concede that it's music.

[[Robert Frost's views on style]]
"Style is that which indicates how the writer takes himself and what he is saying. It is the mind skating circles around itself as it moves forward."
(Robert Frost)
|! hieararchical classification: | [[network attack]] |
|! differentia: | to cause a flood of attacks to bring down a service |

smurfing -- [[Internet Control Message Protocol]] echo reply function sent to broadcast address
fraggle -- spoof a [[User Datagram Protocol]] packet sent to broadcast address
ping flood -- block service / reduce activity on host by sending ping requests directly to the victim
SYN flood -- send SYN to victim but never ACK, resulting in a bunch of half-open TCP sesssions (which requires a wait time before port reset) 
land -- spoof a TCP/IP SYN packet with source IP address = destination IP address and source port = destination port
teardrop -- send fragmented UDP packet directly to the victim
bonk -- corrupt UDP packet to port 53
boink -- all ports
xmas tree -- every option for the underlying protocol
A "metatheoretical proposition" is about [[proposition]]s.  It is proved by [[deduction]] from first principles.  First principles are acquired through [[abstraction]].  All abstractions are (ultimately) derived from content about perceptual concretes.

* [["proving the validity of reason"]]
All [[knowledge]] rests on [[perception]] and [[concept]]s formed properly on the basis of perceptual experience.

Knowledge begins with the [[conceptualization]] of perceptual-concrete information.

* Empircism: Justification terminates in the [[evidence]] of the senses.
** [[Sir Arthur Eddington: Observation is the supreme Court of Appeal|Sir Arthur Eddington's views on the base of all knowledge]]
* Objectivism: The concept of existent is the building-block
agreement intended to be enforced by an agent

All parties must agree.
|! purpose: | bring an implication of an item into full, conscious awareness |

examples of deductive processes:
* subsuming new instances under a known [[concept]]

antecedent knowledge:
* [[concept]]s "store" knowledge in a bundled way, so that the knowledge is available as a wordless context

* [[formal operations]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | [[concept]]s of [[method]] |
|! differentia: | pattern of rules that directs a [[process|process (computing)]] |
|! purpose:    | enable computer to work out some desired result |

An [[expression|expression (computing)]] tells an interpreter of a programming language to do a procedure

How do particular patterns of procedures and expressions cause particular patterns of execution, particular behaviors of the processes?

|! hierarchical classification: | written [[communication]] ⊃ [[paragraph]] |
|! purpose:        | condensation of a written passage |
|! by means of: | expressing a [[summary sentence]] in one's own words |

reproduce in it the relative emphasis the author gives to his thoughts
|! hierarchical classification: | [[network devices and technologies]] used between network and internet |
|! differentia:              | monitoring traffic entering/leaving network |
|! sequence of prior actions: | examine external IP addresses and ports  |
|! fundamental characteristic: | |
|! purpose:                 | control traffic coming in or going out of the network |
|! aspect of:               | network security |

[[firewall rule]]

antecedent knowledge:
* incoming connections
** service
* outbound requests (e.g. from a Red Hat Linux install: DNS replies, DHCP requests, etc.)

examples of firewalls:
* if you enable firewall on a Red Hat installation, the system will reject incoming connections that are not in response  to any outbound request.
* A firewall segments the WLAN from the rest of the network, providing better security than [[IPsec|Internet Protocol security]]
print string and variable's value:
{{{day = "Monday"}}}
{{{puts "stuff", day}}}

print multiple lines with only one command:
{{{Do the carriage return.}}}
{{{You can put in many sentences, separating them with carriage returns.
{{{Close it with the same name:}}}
// TiddlyWeb adaptor
// v0.14.3

/*jslint vars: true, unparam: true, nomen: true, white: true */
/*global jQuery */

var tiddlyweb = (function($) {

"use strict";

var tw = {
	routes: {
		// host is the TiddlyWeb instance's URI (including server_prefix)
		// placeholders "_type" & "name" refer to the respective bag/recipe
		root     : "{host}/",
		bags     : "{host}/bags",
		bag      : "{host}/bags/{name}",
		recipes  : "{host}/recipes",
		recipe   : "{host}/recipes/{name}",
		tiddlers : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers",
		tiddler  : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}",
		revisions: "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}/revisions",
		revision : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}/revisions/{revision}",
		search   : "{host}/search?q={query}"

var convertTimestamp, supplant;

// host (optional) is the URI of the originating TiddlyWeb instance
tw.Resource = function(type, host) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		this._type = type;
		if(host !== false) { = host !== undefined ? host.replace(/\/$/, "") : null;
$.extend(tw.Resource.prototype, {
	// retrieves resource from server
	// callback is passed resource, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	// filters is an optional filter string (e.g. "select=tag:foo;limit=5")
	get: function(callback, errback, filters) {
		var uri = this.route();
		if(filters) {
			var separator = uri.indexOf("?") === -1 ? "?" : ";";
			uri += separator + filters;
		var self = this;
		return $.ajax({
			url: uri,
			type: "GET",
			dataType: "json",
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				var resource = self.parse(data);
				resource.etag = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
				callback(resource, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
	// sends resource to server
	// callback is passed data, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	put: function(callback, errback) {
		var self = this;
		var options = {
			url: this.route(),
			type: "PUT",
			contentType: "application/json",
			data: JSON.stringify(this.baseData()),
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				callback(self, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
		if(this.ajaxSetup) {
		return $.ajax(options);
	// deletes resource on server
	// callback is passed data, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	"delete": function(callback, errback) {
		var self = this;
		var options = {
			url: this.route(),
			type: "DELETE",
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				callback(self, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
		if(this.ajaxSetup) {
		return $.ajax(options);
	// returns an object carrying only the essential information of the resource
	baseData: function() {
		var data = {},
			self = this;
		$.each(, function(i, item) {
			var value = self[item];
			if(value !== undefined) {
				data[item] = value;
		return data;
	// returns corresponding instance from a raw object (if applicable)
	parse: function(data) {
		return data;
	// list of accepted keys in serialization
	data: [],
	// returns resource's URI
	route: function() {
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], this);

var Container = function(type, name, host) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Resource.apply(this, [type, host]); = name;
		this.desc = "";
		this.policy = new tw.Policy({});
Container.prototype = new tw.Resource();
$.extend(Container.prototype, {
	tiddlers: function() {
		return new tw.TiddlerCollection(this);
	parse: function(data) {
		var type = tw._capitalize(this._type),
			container = new tw[type](,;
		data.policy = new tw.Policy(data.policy);
		return $.extend(container, data);
	data: ["desc", "policy"]

// attribs is an object whose members are merged into the instance (e.g. query)
tw.Collection = function(type, host, attribs) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Resource.apply(this, [type, host]);
		$.extend(this, attribs);
tw.Collection.prototype = new tw.Resource();

tw.TiddlerCollection = function(container, tiddler) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Collection.apply(this, [tiddler ? "revisions" : "tiddlers"]);
		this.container = container || null;
		this.tiddler = tiddler || null;
tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype = new tw.Collection();
$.extend(tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype, {
	parse: function(data) {
		var container = this.container;
		return $.map(data, function(item, i) {
			var tiddler = new tw.Tiddler(item.title, container),
				bag = item.bag;
			tiddler = tw.Tiddler.prototype.parse.apply(tiddler, [item]);
			if(!tiddler.bag && bag) { // XXX: bag always present!?
				tiddler.bag = new tw.Bag(bag,;
			if(!tiddler.recipe && item.recipe) {
				tiddler.recipe = new tw.Recipe(item.recipe,;
			delete item.recipe;
			return $.extend(tiddler, item);
	route: function() {
		var params = this.container;
		if(this.tiddler) {
			var container = this.tiddler.bag || this.tiddler.recipe;
			params = {
				_type: container._type,
				title: this.tiddler.title
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], params);

tw.Search = function(query, host) {
	tw.Collection.apply(this, ["search", host]);
	this.query = query;
tw.Search.prototype = new tw.Collection();
$.extend(tw.Search.prototype, {
	parse: function(data) {
		this.container = { // XXX: hacky
			_type: "bag",
		var tiddlers = tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype.parse.apply(this, arguments);
		delete this.container;
		return tiddlers;

// title is the name of the tiddler
// container (optional) is an instance of either Bag or Recipe
// optionally accepts a single object representing tiddler attributes
tw.Tiddler = function(title, container) {
	tw.Resource.apply(this, ["tiddler", false]);
	this.title = title;
	this.bag = container && container._type === "bag" ? container : null;
	this.recipe = container && container._type === "recipe" ? container : null;
	var self = this;
	$.each(, function(i, item) {
		self[item] = undefined; // exposes list of standard attributes for inspectability
	if(title && title.title) { // title is an object of tiddler attributes
		$.extend(this, title);
tw.Tiddler.prototype = new tw.Resource();
$.extend(tw.Tiddler.prototype, {
	revisions: function() {
		return new tw.TiddlerCollection(this.bag || this.recipe, this);
	route: function() {
		var container = this.bag || this.recipe;
		var params = $.extend({}, this, {
			host: container ? : null,
			_type: this.bag ? "bag" : (this.recipe ? "recipe" : null),
			name: container ? : null
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], params);
	parse: function(data) {
		var tiddler = new tw.Tiddler(this.title),
			container = this.bag || this.recipe;
		if(data.bag) {
			tiddler.bag = new tw.Bag(data.bag,;
			delete data.bag;
		delete data.recipe;
		tiddler.created = data.created ? convertTimestamp(data.created) : new Date();
		delete data.created;
		tiddler.modified = data.modified ? convertTimestamp(data.modified) : new Date();
		delete data.modified;
		if(this.recipe) {
			tiddler.recipe = this.recipe;
		return $.extend(tiddler, data);
	data: ["created", "creator", "modifier", "modified", "tags", "type", "text",
	ajaxSetup: function(options) {
		var self = this;
		if(this.etag && (options.type === "PUT" || options.type === "DELETE")) {
			options.beforeSend = function(xhr) {
				xhr.setRequestHeader("If-Match", self.etag);
		if(options.type === "PUT") {
			var callback = options.success;
			options.success = function(data, status, xhr) {
				var loc = xhr.getResponseHeader("Location"),
					etag = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
				if(loc && etag) {
					self.etag = etag;
					if(!self.bag) {
						var bag = loc.split("/bags/").pop().split("/")[0];
						self.bag = new tw.Bag(bag,;
					callback(self, status, xhr);
				} else { // IE
					self.get(callback, options.error);

tw.Revision = function(id, tiddler) {
	var container = tiddler.bag || tiddler.recipe;
	tw.Tiddler.apply(this, [tiddler.title, container]);
	this._type = "revision";
	this.revision = id;
tw.Revision.prototype = new tw.Tiddler();
$.extend(tw.Revision.prototype, {
	revisions: false,
	data: false,
	put: false,
	"delete": false

tw.Bag = function(name, host) {
	Container.apply(this, ["bag", name, host]);
tw.Bag.prototype = new Container();

tw.Recipe = function(name, host) {
	Container.apply(this, ["recipe", name, host]);
	this.recipe = [];
tw.Recipe.prototype = new Container();
$.extend(tw.Recipe.prototype, {
	data: ["recipe"].concat(

tw.Policy = function(constraints) { // TODO: validation?
	var self = this;
	$.each(this.constraints, function(i, item) {
		self[item] = constraints[item];
tw.Policy.prototype.constraints = ["read", "write", "create", "delete",
	"manage", "accept", "owner"];

 * utilities

tw._capitalize = function(str) {
	return str.charAt(0).toUpperCase() + str.slice(1);

// convert YYYYMMDDhhmmss timestamp to Date instance
convertTimestamp = function(t) {
	if (t.match(/^\d{12,17}$/)) {
		return new Date(Date.UTC(
			parseInt(t.substr(0, 4), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(4, 2), 10) - 1,
			parseInt(t.substr(6, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(8, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(10, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(12, 2) || "0", 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(14, 3) || "0", 10)
	} else {
		return new Date(Date.parse(t));

// adapted from Crockford (
supplant = function(str, obj) {
	return str.replace(/{([^{}]*)}/g, function (a, b) {
		var r = obj[b];
		r = typeof r === "string" || typeof r === "number" ? r : a;
		return $.inArray(b, ["host", "query"]) !== -1 ? r : encodeURIComponent(r); // XXX: special-casing

return tw;

the science, the theory of [[knowledge]]

Our purpose as conscious beings has to be to gain knowledge of reality and learn to understand it.  Man's only means for acquiring knowledge is his mind.  If you know how knowledge is acquired and validated, you can bring the quest under conscious guidance.  

* foundations:
** [[existence]]
** [[identity]]
** [[consciousness]]
* ???
** [[perception]]
** [[concept-formation]]
** acquisition of [[knowledge]]
** [[context]]
** [[validation]] of knowledge
** [[understanding intellectual products]]
* ladder of content:
** [[preconceptual data]]
** [[unit]]s
** [[concept]] 
** [[subset]]s
** [[proposition]] -- [[their anatomy|anatomy of propositions]], [[proposition qua]], [[principle]]
** [[logical arrangements of propositions]]
* the faculty of [[reason]]
** method: [[logic]]
*** [[causal reasoning]]
* checking epistemological health:
** [[standards/criteria|epistemology: standards/criteria]]
*** [[objectivity]] -- [[hierarchy of knowledge]], [[context]], [[unity|knowledge as a unity]]
** [[truth]]
** [[signs of epistemological trouble]]
** [[belief]]
** [[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]
* [[positions on methodology]]
* positions:
** [[attacks on reason]]

What does it mean to mentally grasp something?  Is this the same as knowledge? If not, how is it different?  What sort of thing is mental grasp?
|! genus:       | [[mental processes]] |
|! differentia: | observing [[similarities|similarity]] and [[differences|differentiation]] and organizing [[existent]]s accordingly |
|! aspect of:  | cognition |
|! result:        | [[classification]] ⇒ [[conceptual hierarchy]] |
|! complement: | [[integrate|mental integration]] categorizations to the [[context]] relevant to the observed existents |

* lumpers vs splitters, aka conceptually merging with vs separating off into another
** [[Rand's razor]] offers a lead on cut-offs: cognitive necessity

* [[classification]]
* [[concept-formation]]
* [[abstraction]]
* [[mental integration]]
* [[omitting all particular measurements]]
* [[the process of conceptualization is contextual]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | method for data storage |
|! differentia: | on a [[mass storage device]] |

what it means to store data on a device:
* accounting of space utilized
* tracking creation, latest access, and last modification

modern file systems are [[hierarchical|hierarchical directory structure]]
* directory paths are names of files

most file systems involve file ownership and offer [[access control|filesystem Access Control List]], but control varies from one file system to another

standard file systems on [[hard disk drive]]s:
* EXT2 -- does a system-integrity check if power lost
* EXT3 -- writes changes to be made to the file system in an on-disk journal, eliminating the need for the lengthy system-integrity check
* NFS -- a network accessible file system that relies on the server operating system's native support for file systems to control the actual I/O to local disk drive(s); the file system is made available to any computer running appropriate NFS client software

standard file systems on CDROM's:
* ISO 9660 -- 8 character limit on file name lengths
* ISO 9660 extensions:
** Rock Ridge uses undefined fields:
*** long mixed case file names
*** [[symbolic link]]s
*** nested directories
** Joliet
*** long fle names using Unicode character set
|''Description''|Initializes new TiddlySpaces the first time they are created|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig RandomColorPalettePlugin chrjs ImageMacroPlugin|
* robust error notification and recovery
<link href="/bags/%0_public/tiddlers.atom" rel="alternate"
	type="application/atom+xml" title="%0's public feed" />
<link rel="canonical" href="%1/" />
(function($) {

var versionField = "tiddlyspaceinit_version";
var markupPreHead = store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##MarkupPreHead", "");
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var currentSpace = tiddlyspace.currentSpace;
var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;

var plugin = config.extensions.TiddlySpaceInit = {
	version: "0.6",
	SiteTitle: "%0",
	SiteSubtitle: "a TiddlySpace",
	flagTitle: "%0SetupFlag",
	flagWarning: "Please do not modify this tiddler; it was created " +
		"automatically upon space creation.",

	dispatch: function(ev) {
		var title = plugin.flagTitle.format([]);
		config.annotations[title] = plugin.flagWarning;
		if(currentSpace.type != "private") {
		var tiddlers = [];
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(tid) {
			curVersion = parseFloat(tid.fields[versionField]);
			reqVersion = parseFloat(plugin.version);
			if(curVersion < reqVersion) {
				plugin.update(curVersion, tid);
				tid.fields[versionField] = plugin.version;
				tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
		} else { // first run
			tid = new Tiddler(title);
			tid.tags = ["excludeLists", "excludeSearch", "excludePublisher"];
			tid.fields = $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields);
			tid.fields[versionField] = plugin.version;
			tid.text = "@@%0@@".format([plugin.flagWarning]);
			tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
			tiddlers = tiddlers.concat(plugin.firstRun(), tid);
		autoSaveChanges(null, tiddlers);
	update: function(curVersion, flagTiddler) {
		if(curVersion < 0.2) {
		if(curVersion < 0.3) {
			flagTiddler.tags.pushUnique("excludePublisher"); // XXX: never persisted
		if(curVersion < 0.5) { // v0.4 was faulty
		if(curVersion < 0.6) {
	pubTid: {
		tags: ["excludeLists", "excludeSearch"],
		fields: $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields, {
			"server.workspace": tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("public")
	makeTiddlerIfNot: function(tiddler) {
		if (!store.tiddlerExists(tiddler.title)) {
			$.extend(true, tiddler, plugin.pubTid);
			return [store.saveTiddler(tiddler)];
		} else {
			return [];
	firstRun: function() {
		var tiddlers = [];
		// generate Site*itle
		$.each(["SiteTitle", "SiteSubtitle"], function(i, item) {
			var tid = new Tiddler(item);
			tid.text = plugin[item].format([]);
		// generate public ColorPalette
		var tid = new Tiddler("ColorPalette");
		tid.text = config.macros.RandomColorPalette.generatePalette({
			saturation_pale: 0.67, saturation_light: 0.53,
			saturation_mid: 0.43, saturation_dark: 0.06,
			pale: 0.99, light: 0.85, mid: 0.5, dark: 0.31
		tiddlers.push.apply(tiddlers, plugin.makeTiddlerIfNot(tid));
		return tiddlers;
	// remove _cookie slices (TiddlyWiki 2.6.2 beta 6 remnants)
	purgeSystemSettings: function() {
		var ss = store.getTiddler("SystemSettings");
		if(ss) {
			var lines = ss.text.split("\n");
			var persistentOptions = $.grep(lines, function(line, i) {
				return line.indexOf("_cookie:") == -1;
			ss.text = persistentOptions.join("\n");
			ss = store.saveTiddler(ss);
			autoSaveChanges(null, [ss]);
	createAvatar: function() {
		var avatar = "SiteIcon";
		var host =;
		var notify = function(xhr, error, exc) {
			displayMessage("ERROR: could not create avatar - " + // TODO: i18n
				"%0: %1".format([xhr.statusText, xhr.responseText]));
			// TODO: resolve!?

		var pubBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("public");
		var tid = new tiddlyweb.Tiddler(avatar);
		tid.bag = new tiddlyweb.Bag(pubBag, host);

		var callback = function(data, status, xhr) {}; // avatar already exists; do nothing
		var errback = function(xhr, error, exc) {
			if(xhr.status != 404) {
			// copy default avatar
			var _notify = function(tid, status, xhr) {
				displayMessage("created avatar"); // TODO: i18n
				var image = config.macros.image;
				if(image && image.refreshImage) {
					var uri = "/%0/tiddlers/SiteIcon".
			var _callback = function(tid, status, xhr) {
				tid.title = avatar; = pubBag;
				delete tid.etag;
				tid.put(_notify, notify); // TODO: add to current session document (via adaptor?)
			tweb.getUserInfo(function(user) {
				var avatarTitle = == ?
					"defaultUserIcon" : "defaultSiteIcon";
				var tid = new tiddlyweb.Tiddler(avatarTitle);
				tid.bag = new tiddlyweb.Bag("common", host);
				tid.get(_callback, notify);
		tid.get(callback, errback);
	savePublicTiddlerText: function(title, text, pubWorkspace) {
		var tid = new Tiddler(title);
		tid.text = text;
		tid.tags = ["excludeLists"];
		tid.fields = $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields);
		tid.fields["server.workspace"] = pubWorkspace;
		tid.fields[""] = "false";
		tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
		autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
	setupMarkupPreHead: function() {
		var pubWorkspace = tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("public");
		var existing = store.getTiddler("MarkupPreHead");
		if(!existing || existing.fields["server.workspace"] != pubWorkspace) {
			var context = this;
			tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
				var text = markupPreHead.format(,
				context.savePublicTiddlerText("MarkupPreHead", text,
		// also set up DefaultTiddlers
		var title = "DefaultTiddlers";
		existing = store.getTiddler(title) || new Tiddler(title);
		if(existing.fields["server.workspace"] != pubWorkspace) {
			var text = existing.text || store.getShadowTiddlerText(title);
			this.savePublicTiddlerText(title, text, pubWorkspace);

$(document).bind("startup", plugin.dispatch);

|! purpose:  | [[achieving/maintaining focus]] |
|! aspect of: | [[thinking]] |

* center of a web of relations
* depth along a line of thought
* step in a mental process
* range of [[alternatives|generating alternatives]]
* level of [[abstraction]]
* point along chain of antecedents brought to conscious attention by [[hierarchical reduction]]
* scope of [[horizontal integration]]
* zoom ([[system level]])
creating an associative array:
$//someassociativearray// = array('//someunique//' => '//somestring//', 'things' => 3);

calling an item from associative array:
echo $//someassociativearray//['//someunique//']];
Ability, by itself, has no political power.

Only an act of government can turn a group of individuals into rulers,  i.e. through [[unjust|justice]] legislation granting coercive power over some innocuous sphere of activity

Ayn Rand viewed the idea as an "anti-concept" and a [[package-deal]] in that it equates individuals of ability with political rulers, obliterating "the difference between mind and force".  (Ayn Rand, Philosophy: Who Needs It, 105)
> for example
> for instance
> thus [example]
> namely
> specifically
> to illustrate
!Upload an icon
<<tiddler spaceIcon>>
!Describe your space
If you haven't already done so, you should provide a brief decscription of yourself and what you're using this space for. To do this, just edit the [[SiteInfo]] tiddler (keeping the title the same of course).

!Change the title
<<tiddler spaceTitle>>
!Change the theme
<<tiddler colorScheme>>
!Change the menu
If you'd like to change the menu items along the top, you can edit the [[MainMenu]] tiddler.

!Change the default tiddlers
<<tiddler setDefaultTiddlers>>
!More Advanced customisations
If you know HTML and CSS, you can edit some or all of the following tiddlers to customise your space further:
* PageTemplate
* EditTemplate
* ViewTemplate
* StyleSheet
* [[learning]]
* [[scientific method]]
* [[understanding intellectual products]]
** [[reading for understanding]]
** [[understanding arguments]]
** [[critical thinking]]
* [[questioning]]
* [[problem solving]]
** [[troubleshooting]]
* [[hammock driven development]]
* [[intellectual mastery]]
* [[planning]]
** [[design]]
** [[change control process]]
** [[scenarios]]
* [[project management]]
* [[creative thought]]
The symmetry group of a geometric figure consists of the isometries that transform points ont he figure to points on the figure.

Isometries are the rotations, reflections, etc. that preserve the figure. 
|! cipher suite: | [[Advanced Encryption Standard]] |

uses 128 bit key with 48 bit initialization vector (to reduce vulnerabilities to replay attacks)
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[cryptographic protocols]] that secure communication by means of [[certificates|public key certificate]] |
|! differentia:                           | communications occur between HTTP on the application layer and [[TCP|Transmission Control Protocol]] on the transport layer |
|! port:                                     | 443 |
|! fundamental characteristic: | uses [[asymmetric key|asymmetric cryptography]] ([[cipher]] strength 40 or 128 bits) |
|! purpose:                              | establish secure channel  |
|! sequence of preconditions: | handshake procedure ← [[client|client (computing)]] and [[server|server (computing)]] that support [[SSL certificate]] |

* website-accessible customer data
* wireless

If it didn't, it couldn't be a Totality.

* [[composition]]
* [[constituents of the universe]]
* [[on the sum of everything]]
|! hierarchical classification: | symmetric-key algorithm ⊃ implementation of the Rijndael cipher |
|! means:      | |

more secure than [[Temporal Key Integrity Protocol]], which it supplanted

used in [[WPA2]], which replaced [[Wi-fi Protected Access]]
|! genus:       | [[ontological categories]] |
|! differentia: | having or not having |
|! resulting from: | being acted on |
>"a characteristic is an aspect of what an entity is or does"
~West from Objectivist Forums

Characteristics can be used to isolate [[unit]]s

characteristics in relation to [[unit]]s:
* [[distinguishing characteristic(s)]]
* [[commensurable characteristic]]

characteristics in relation to characteristics:
* [[fundamental characteristic]]
* [[proprium]]

knowledge of characteristics:
* There are only so many characteristics you can [[abstract|abstraction]] from a set of units.  
** environment: examples
** cause: determined by the nature of the units and your knowledge of them
** source: needing more instances when one cannot abstract anymore
** similar items: [[knowledge is contextual]]; 
** similarities:
** genus: ???
** implications:
** whole: 

* situation vs [[event]] 
* [[being|state of affairs]] vs changing
* [[definition]]
examples of what Fawkes thinks of:
* working on hierarchy
* following cause/effect chains
* checking the validity of an intuition
* evaluating inferences
>"Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws, with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties for the regulating and preserving of property, and of employing the force of the community in the execution of such laws, and in the defence of the commonwealth from foreign injury, and all this only for the public good."
~2nd Treatise of Government, Chapter 1, section 3
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceFollowingPlugin|
(function($) {
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var tsScan = config.macros.tsScan;

config.shadowTiddlers.SearchTemplate = "<<view server.bag SiteIcon label:no width:24 height:24 preserveAspectRatio:yes>> <<view server.bag spaceLink title external:no>> in space <<view server.bag spaceLink>>";
config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetSearch = [".resultsArea .siteIcon { display: inline; }",
	".searchForm {text-align: left;}"].join("\n");
store.addNotification("StyleSheetSearch", refreshStyles);

var search = config.macros.tsSearch = {
	locale: {
		advanced: "Advanced Options",
		header: "Search",
		resultsHeader: "Results (%0)",
		find: "find",
		noResults: "No tiddlers matched your search query",
		query: "QUERY: ",
		error: "please provide a search query or a tag, modifier or title!",
		titleAdvanced: "where the title is",
		modifierAdvanced: "where the last modifier is",
		spaceAdvanced: "only in the space: ",
		notspaceAdvanced: "but not in the spaces: ",
		tagsAdvanced: "with the tags: "
	andConstructor: function(container, label, fieldname, negationMode) {
		var tags = $("<div />").appendTo(container);
		$('<span />').text(label).appendTo(tags);
		var id = "area" + Math.random();
		container = $("<span />").attr("id", id).appendTo(tags)[0];
		function add(container) {
			var el = $('<input type="text" />').attr("field", fieldname).appendTo(container);
			if(negationMode) {
				el.attr("negation", "true");
		var el = $("<button />").text("AND").click(function(ev) {
		$(el).data("container", container);
	fieldConstructor: function(container, label, field) {
		container = $("<div />").appendTo(container)[0];
		$("<span />").text(label).appendTo(container);
		$("<input />").attr("text", "input").attr("field", field).appendTo(container);
	advancedOptions: function(form) {
		var locale = search.locale;
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("tsAdvancedOptions").appendTo(form)[0];
		$("<h2/ >").text(search.locale.advanced).appendTo(container);
		$("<div />").addClass("separator").appendTo(container);
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.titleAdvanced, "title");
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.modifierAdvanced, "modifier");
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.spaceAdvanced, "space");
		search.andConstructor(container, locale.notspaceAdvanced, "space", true);
		search.andConstructor(container, locale.tagsAdvanced, "tag");
	constructSearchQuery: function(form) {
		var data = [], select = [];
		var query = $("[name=q]", form).val();
		if(query) {

		// add tags, fields etc..
		$("[field]", form).each(function(i, el) {
			var val = $(el).val();
			var name = $(el).attr("field");
			var negate = $(el).attr("negation") == "true";
			if(val && name) {
				val = encodeURIComponent(val);
				val = negate ? "!" + val : val;
				if(name == "space") {
					val += "_public";
					name = "bag";
				if(negate) {
				} else {
					var prefix = data.length === 0 ? "q=" : "";
					data.push('%0%1:"%2"'.format(prefix, name, val));
		var dataString = data.join(" ");
		if(dataString.length === 0 && !query) {
			return false;
		var selectStatement = select.join("&");
		if(dataString.length > 0 && selectStatement.length > 0) {
			dataString += "&";
		dataString += selectStatement;
		return "/search?%0".format(dataString);
	constructForm: function(place) {
		var locale = search.locale;
		$("<h1 />").text(locale.header).appendTo(place);
		var form = $("<form />").appendTo(place)[0];
		$('<input type="text" name="q" />').appendTo(form);
		$('<input type="submit" />').val(locale.find).appendTo(form);
		var query = $('<h2 class="query"/>').appendTo(place)[0];
		var results = $("<div />").appendTo(place).addClass("resultsArea")[0];
		var lookup = function(url) {
			if(!url) {
			config.extensions.tiddlyweb.getStatus(function(status) {
				var href = status.server_host.url + url;
				$("<a />").attr("href", href).text(href).appendTo(query);
				tsScan.scan(results, { url: url, emptyMessage: search.locale.noResults, cache: true,
					template: "SearchTemplate", sort: "title", callback: function(tiddlers) {
						$("<h2 />").text(locale.resultsHeader.format(tiddlers.length)).prependTo(results);
		$(form).submit(function(ev) {
			var url = search.constructSearchQuery(form);
			config.macros.tsSearch.lastSearch = url;
		if(search.lastSearch) {
		return form;
	handler: function(place) {
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("searchForm").appendTo(place)[0];

* shadow in shape of object
* wall faded around painting
* seasickness and motion of boat
> ...concepts are densely stitched together through relationships of [[similarity]] and context.
~//Surfaces and Essences//, Chapter 1: The Evocation of Words, "The Structure of Categories and of Conceptual Space"
[[postulates in geometry]]
* animism
* mysticism
* Formism -- “realism”; Plato, Aristotle, the Scholastics and Neoscholastics, the Neorealists, and the 20th century Cambridge realists; similarity
* [reductionist] Mechane-ism -- “materialism”; Democritus, Lucretius, Galileo, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Reichenbach; explanatory parts
* [metaphysical] Contextualism -- “pragmatism”; Protagoras?, Peirce, William James, Bergson, Dewey, Mead; action as event in a unique historical context
* [metaphysical] Organicism -- “absolute idealism” aka "objective idealism"; Schelling, Hegel, Green, Bradley Bosanquet, Royce; whole

Formism and Mechanism are "analytical theories" in that they focus on elements or factors so that "synthesis" becomes a  derivative rather than a basic fact.

Contextualism and Organicism focus on complexes or contexts, so that "analysis" becomes derivative.

Formism and Contextualism are "dispersive" theories in that "facts are taken one by one from whatever source they come and and are interpreted as they come so are left" and what we end up with is "multitudes of facts rather loosely scattered about and not necessarily determining one another by any considerable degree"

Mechanism and Organicism are "integrative" theories.
two parties agree on a new, random key every time they want to communicate a message

virtually all symmetric [[cipher]]s use the [[key|key (cryptography)]] to build a [[key table]]
authenticator confirms user's identity by comparing what user submits to something the authenticator uses to confirm

# client sends authentication request to server
# server sends request to authenticator, which resides on either the server of interest to the client or another server
# authenticator determines whether identity is confirmed
# server sends response to client, e.g. client authenticates to RADIUS server

how authentication methods can vary:
* marking initial communications
* factors, e.g. knowledge of answer, having the identifying data, something uniquely associated with the physical user

frameworks for wireless authentication:
* [[Wired Equivalent Privacy]]
* incarnations of WPA:
** [[Wi-Fi Protected Access]] -- relies on [[TKIP|Temporal Key Integrity Protocol]]
** WPA2 -- relies on [[AES|Advanced Encryption Standard]]
* extensibles
** [[EAP|Extensible Authentication Protocol]] -- secures things besides wireless
** [[PEAP|Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol]]
** [[LEAP]] -- Cisco, susceptible to dictionary attacks
* [[Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol]]
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[[conditional statements in PHP]]
[[switch statements in PHP]]
[[loops in PHP]]

condition of a [[functional system]] 
where it fails to achieve an associated outcome and can no longer succeed without stimulus
|! fundamental characteristic: | apply [[concept]]s to existents |
|! by means of: | coordinating established range(s) |

* apply to subjects known directly (by [[perception]])
* apply to subjects known indirectly (through a process of [[abstraction]])
* apply to observed [[fact]]s and reach a higher-level conceptual identification

The vehicle for conceptual identification is the [[proposition]]
<!DOCTYPE html>
	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
	<title>This Space</title>
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/profile.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/admin.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
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	<div id="text-html" class="main section">
		<a class="app" href="/">home</a>
		<div class="left">
		<h2>About this space <button class='toggleNext'></button></h2>
		<div id="siteinfo"></div>
		<h2>Site Icon</h2>
			<img id="siteicon" class="siteicon">
			<form id="upload" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
				<input type="hidden" name="title" value="SiteIcon" />
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				<input class="btn" type="submit" value="upload" />
			<div id="dropzone">Drop file here
				<img class="notloading" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/ajax-loader.gif" alt="submitting SiteIcon" />
		<h2>Vital Statistics</h2>
		<div id="info">please wait while information is loaded about this space...</div>
		<button class="spacereset">Reset Space</button>
		<div class="reset-confirm-wrap messageArea">
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				<p class="performing">Resetting...</p>
				<p class="finished">Reset Done!</p>
				<p class="recipe-error-msg">Error removing includes. Please remove manually.</p>
		<div class="right">
		<div class="ts-membership">
				Add Member
				<a href="" title="What is a Member?" class="help">What is a Member?</a>
				<p>Add a new member to your space by entering their name below. Enter a space name instead and prefix with @ to add everyone who is already a member of that space.</p>
				<form class="ts-members">
					<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="username">
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				Existing Members <button class='toggleNext'></button>
				Your space currently has the following members: 
				<ul class="ts-members"></ul>
				Include Space
				<a class="help" href="" title="What is inclusion?">What is Inclusion?</a>
			<form class="ts-includes">
				<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="spacename">
				<input type="submit" value="Include Space" class="btn" />
			<h2>Included Spaces <button class='toggleNext'></button></h2>
			This space includes the following spaces:
			<ul class="ts-includes"></ul>
		<div class="clear"></div>
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<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery-form.js'></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/siteiconupload.js"></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/ts.js"></script>
<script src="/status.js"></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/space.js"></script>
Cessante ratione legis cessat ipsa lex.

When the reason for the law ceases, the law itself ceases.

A rule of law becomes ineffective when the reason for its application has ceased to exist or does not correspond to the reality anymore.
* During [[concept-formation]], you [[differentiated|conceptual differentiation]] and [[integrated|integration of units]] the material provided by perception.
* During [[proposition]]-formation, you differentiated and integrated ?
* During [[factor analysis|factoring a phenomenon]] (for preparing the mind to grasp causal relationships), you differentiated and integrated the situations according to factors and unified the phenomena by reference to a common mechanism.
> If it is necessary to check certain [[fact]]s, then there is a reason to consider alternatives even if you aren't in possession of information that disproves the conclusion. 
~Dave Odden on certainty

(see [[possibility|possible]])
|! aspect of: | [[assemblage]] |

Parts are part of a whole.  They are connected to other parts constituting the totality.  The parts of a whole stand in some relation of dependence that characterizes the whole.  Once you remove a thing from a whole, it is no longer part of the whole. 

No part is greater than the whole it is part of.

Wholes are greater than any of its parts. 

Behavior is dependent on composition.

Contrast stoicheion against the plurality of directions implied by the fact that one can reach[[wider integration]], perform [[conceptual subdivision]], or add a category of measurements to an antecedent [[concept]].

Stocheion is best used as a concept of relationship within a certain context.  Stocheion of geometry, stocheion of motion, stocheion of matter, stocheion of deduction, stocheion of particulars, and so on.
Invariance means that something remains the same despite variation in something else.

If something doesn't affect an outcome, that outcome is invariant with respect to the thing.  The thing is irrelevant to the outcome.

Invariants are arrived at through [[abstraction]]

Can invariance be induced as a generalization?  Jay R thinks so:
>"the identification of an [[invariance]] is only formulated into a law if the invariance is induced beyond what can be perceptually grasped."
~Jay R from Objectivist Forums

But what of [[unstable invariance]]?

types of invariance:
* [[quantitative invariance]]
* [[compositional invariance]]
* [[structural invariance]]
* [[functional invariance]]

* [[causality]]
* [[conserved quantity]]
* [[characteristics of scientific law]]
where people get their sense of reality from:
* perception
* work
* play
* entertainment
* art
* other people
* contemplation
moved [[here|]]
|! hierarchical classification: | methods for managing computer resources ⊃ [[memory management]] method |
|! differentia: | moving between [[main memory]] and secondary storage a whole [[program|computer program]] at a time |

swap-out: writing RAM data to disk

swap-in: RAM receives data from disk
The phrase "ceteris paribus" is used to qualify [[universal affirmative proposition]]s.  In other words, the proposition applies to any situation where the agents are operating under certain [[necessary condition]]s.

This reflects the [[metaphysical fact]] that the state of a [[physical system]] remains the same unless changed by external or internal [[causal mechanism]]s
# What makes the piece sound the way that it does?
** If you removed a particular expressive element, would the piece lose its character?  become distorted?
** What motions are necessary for the expressive elements?
# Define the character of the movement of the piece more precisely than the stated meter.  
** If you were a conductor, what gestures would cure performers?
# As you learn the sheet music, pay attention to executing correct motions at a comfortable speed.
** Play it slowly while paying attention to preserving the character of the movement.
** If your breathing becomes tense, you're practicing too fast.
# Once you can play it fluently, you can gradually speed up, each time checking your faster performance against the expressiveness of the movement.
** Don't let your attention wander off the easy parts simply because they're easy.  You'll screw it up.
Where there are multiple platters (or one platter with both surfaces used for data storage), the arms for each surface are stacked, allowing the same track (concentric ring) on each surface to be accessed simultaneously.

A cylinder denotes a specific position of the access arm (and therefore, the read/write heads), reducing our search to only one track for each surface in the mass storage device. 
* [[Hostile Instances]] -- indicates contrary natures since the attributes are never found together
* [[Instances of Separation]] -- demonstrates that two things thought to be conjoined don't have to be

* [[Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
|! hierarchical classification: | standards for security on wireless networks |
|! purpose:    | encrypt network traffic  ➞ provide data [[confidentiality|information security: confidentiality]] |
|! by means of: | [[RC4]] |
@@Please do not modify this tiddler; it was created automatically upon space creation.@@
|! hierarchical classification:       | relationships among entities |
|! differentia: | ordinal number of coordinates needed to specify a point |

[[antecedent knowledge]]:
* implicit [[concept]]s of spatial relationships
* location as specific place
* defined coordinate system
* point as spatially indivisible location

* [[concepts of numbers]]
|! hierarchical classification: | low-level [[programming language]] |
|! fundamental characteristic: | specific to a particular computer architecture |

contrast with most [[high-level programming language]]s

There is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. 
a mathematical space that on a small enough scale resembles the Euclidean space of a certain [[dimension]], called the dimension of the manifold.
|! hierarchical classification:       | [[characteristics]] |
|! differentia: | common to [[unit]]s and explained by the [[definition]] |

> An attribute common to all the individuals of a class, found in that class only, and following from the essential or defining attributes, though not included among them
~William Minto, //Logic: Inductive and Deductive//, part I: The Elements of Propositions, Chapter I: General Names and Allied Distinctions
> You sold the box //of videos//.
> The man //with the hat// paid in cash.
|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental processes]] |
|! differentia: | by means of which man distinguishes between two more [[existent]]s |
|! purpose:    | [[supplying the mind]] ➞ [[ensuring productive thinking]] ➞ [[proper reasoning|reason]] |

* [[perceptual differentiation]]
* [[conceptual differentiation]]
* [[inductive differentiation]]

ways to use differentiation to isolate a characteristic:
* considering the same individual entity when it has some predicate vs. when it lacks some predicate
* second-order differentiation of those characteristcs that vary vs. those that do not vary
* combining entity-concepts metaphorically, e.g. "tiger-lily"

Differentiations are made in terms of [[characteristics]] possessing a common unit of [[measurement]], i.e. [[commensurable characteristic]].  Ayn Rand points out in ITOE that "No concept could be formed, for instance, by attempting to distinguish long objects from green objects. Incommensurable characteristics cannot be integrated into one [[unit]]."

Differentiation results in a multiplicity (at least two).  

Differentiation provides the material for [[mental integration]] 

Differentiation seems easier than [[mental integration]]
Animals can differentiate

* [[distinguishing characteristic(s)]]
* [[classification]]
|! resources needed: | time to consider alternatives |

# What exactly needs to be recalled?
** What is the many that you need to recall?  What distinguishes it from similar multiples?
** Consider each element as uniquely situated among the others.
** What is the best arrangement of the elements for recalling the elements?
# For which cases would the information need to be recalled?
** If you can't play with any real ones, can you concretize a [[binary relation]]?
# For each identified case, gather a foundation for deciding on associations.
** What combination of inputs should trigger the multiple? 
*** There should be at least two inputs.
*** One of the inputs should be a mental action.
** What is missing from the tentative formulation?
** How can the trigger be distinguished from all similar combinations, thus facilitating recall? See [[address space]]
# What familiar information could serve as a basis for association between trigger and record?
# For each conceived situation, rehearse the act of recalling the information.
|! hierarchical classification:    | actions of computers ⊃ [[process (computing)]] |
|! differentia: | spawned by some parent process |

inherits the environment of its parent
|! hierarchical classification:  | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: | compound of fields, i.e. a value that contains other values |
ordered with respect to increasing degree of [[certainty]]:
* [[regularities demanding further inquiry]]
* [[instances demanding causal understanding]]
* [[instances isolating a characteristic from others]]
* [[instances for causal inference]]
|! hieraarchical classification: | tools of cognition ⊃ [[actions of consciousness]] |
|! differentia: | a process of logical inference |
|! by means of: | [[general process for thinking]] |
|! purpose:    | identify reality in [[conceptual terms|concept]] |
|! prior action: | [[preparation for thinking]] |

Psycho-epistemologically considered, thinking is asking questions.

Consciousness is a response-tool whose function is affected by habits, emotions, [[concept]]s, and beliefs.

Fixed ideas bind thoughts together.

[[aspects of thinking]]

products of thought:
* [[arrangements of intellectual content]]

* [[general process for thinking]]
* [[intelligence]]
* [[cognitive constraints on thinking]]

* [[heuristics for thinking]]
* [[teaching kids how to think]]

* [[automating proper thinking]] 

[[applications of thought]]

learn LISP
layers of abstraction don't matter
deal with whatever layer you're on to get the information

!! to do with this topic
clean up the list
|! hierarchical classification: | occurrent ⊃ what a computer is doing |
|! differentia:              | execution of the instructions from a [[computer program]] |
|! by means of:         | [[computer processor]] over time |
|! purpose:                 | ⊂➞ |
|! aspect of:               | the current activity of a computer |
|! omit:                       | compute-boundedness, number of threads |

[[exclusive states of a process|process state (computing)]]:
* [[runnable process]]

* Processes must be [[scheduled|scheduling (computing)]] for receiving [[processor|computer processor]] time.
* Processes must use resources
** [[memory|computer memory]]
** [[file handles]]
** sockets
** device handles
* Processes are directed by [[procedures|procedure (computing)]]

Processes can [[spawn|spawn (computing)]] other processes.  A [[child process|child process (computing)]] inherits the environment of its parent.

condition of a [[process]]:
* [[hang (computing)]]
* [[crash (computing)]]

variation among processes:
* whether the process is compute-bound, i.e. constantly needing the [[processor|computer processor]]
* whether the process consists of multiple [[threads|thread of execution]] so that some instructions are executed [[concurrently|processor context switch]]; some [[operating system]]s support this but not all
* whether the process was scheduled by a [[kernel]]
* whether the process involves a [[graphical user interface]], such as the drawing of its associated window

* Programs request services from [[operating system]] [[kernel]] by means of [[system call]]s
No government agent may enter a dwelling or any other premises against the will of the owner unless pursuant to a lawful warrant issued upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

One aspect of a lawful warrant is that the owner can obtain it.
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The concept of mathematical induction is a concept of method used to establish the validity of an alleged relationship.  

What gives rise to the need for such a method?  Certain relationships, such as those involving natural numbers, need validation. 

You establish that, for any given natural number, the relationship is valid.  You also establish that it holds if you move to the next number in the sequence, which establishes the validity of the relationship for all possible natural numbers. 

Measurements omitted:
* the values in the second and third step ie, the values of n and n + 1.  
* the particular natural numbers which are taken from measurments of the actual relationships been described
It is better to treat the cause than it is to lessen the symptoms.

Develop unambiguous, objective criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the treatment. 

It's cheaper and more reliable to improve upon existing technologies than it is to start from an untested theory.
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered:           |  relation of existents to previous knowledge |
|! identification: | involves more than one factor co-existent with or prior to the existence of the [[attribute]] under investigation |
|! operation:                         | compare degree of factor against degree of [[attribute]] of interest |
|! demonstrates that:           | [[attribute]] co-varies more closely with one factor than with another |

part of a process:
|! classification of operation: | [[methods for experiments]] ⊂ [[experimentation]] ||
|! prior actions:                      | [[abstraction]] of factors |
|! next:                                   |  |

* [[underdetermined]] theories
* [[regularity: coexistence with effect]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[Subjunctive Instances]] |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s to which the [[universal of inductive interest]] applies |
|! identification:           | highest degree |
|! demonstrates that:  | near upper limit |

subjunctive instances feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! prior actions: | [[conceptualization]] ← [[perception]] |
|! next:              | [[methods for experiments]] |
|! classification of next: | [[experimentation]] |
# initiate opportunities for learning
# survey the learning situation
# plan
** the motivated mindset
** set specific learning goals
** identify possibly useful [[learning strategies]]
# gather learning materials
** initiate opportunities for learning
** get your hands on complicated but typical examples
** expert opinions? recommendations?
# monitor progress as you learn
** as planned? or old habits?
** [[focus]]?
** signs of trouble?
** modify plan on the fly
# grasp causes, especially volitional
** trace bad consequences to correctable causes
** trace good consequences to volitional actions associated with the plan, reinforcing what worked
# connect to long-term
** identify things you could have taken advantage of to do even better
** look for [[principle]]s
# evaluate effectiveness
* [[principles for investigating certain phenomena]]
* [[principles for quantifying certain phenomena]]
* [[principles of modeling]]
* [[acceptance|risk response: acceptance]]
* [[avoidance|risk response: avoidance]]
* mitigation
* deterrence
* transference to providers who assume responsibility
> in sum
> to sum up
> on the whole
> in brief
> in other words
* GNOME desktop
* K Desktop Environment
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|! purpose: | [[ensure productive thinking|ensuring productive thinking]] |

* stretch, loosen joints, become more active, or otherwise transition to full wakefulness
* set the mode of consciousness for your day
** get up early so you don't stress for the rest of the morning
** identify something important to you
** hand off an open question for your subconscious to work on during the day
* create the pillars of your day
as some [[ideal form|ideal form theory of universals]] that particulars imperfectly reflect

as existing in the particulars and only appearing as universals in our minds (i.e. moderate realism):
* [[component theory of universals]]
* [[substance theory of universals]]
* [[properties as universals|properties theory of universals]]
* [[dimension theory of universals]]

as existing only in the mind with no external reality:
* [[universals as mental connections among the fragments of experience]]
* [[linguistic-nominalist theory of universals]]
* as [[apparent resemblance between states of flux]]

as [[objective relations|objective relation theory of universals]]

Also see [[Mikee on four world views]]
new materials or mechanisms offering benefits for man

e.g. salt peter revolutionizing battering rams
e.g. silk which nobody studying cotton could have produced

* [[prerogative instances|Bacon on Prerogative Instances]]
derived from a verb but does not function as a verb

* [[gerund]] e.g.: "running"
* [[infinitive]] e.g. "to run"
* [[participle]]
Consciousness is consciousness of something.

Consciousness presupposes [[existence]].
|!hierarchical classification: | [[conceptual errors]] ⊃ [[lack of integration]] |
|!differentia: | substituting a specific concrete for the wider abstract class to which it belongs |,_fallacy_of.html

i.e. frozen on the level of one of the species -- as opposed to integrating to reach a higher level, so as to include all of the species 

This type of error can poison [[mental integration]].  A frozen abstraction on cause can affect [[horizontal integration]], preventing a person from recognizing a cause in a wide context. e.g. "Charity wouldn't exist without welfare state"
elimination of the [[vulnerability|network security vulnerability]]
When you are doing ordinary reading, your subconscious will eventually respond and give you something that is not what the author wrote.  Let "segment size" refer to how much your brain can handle before your subconscious responds that way.   For example, your subconscious might want to tell you something.  Or it might want to step away from the material for a while.

|! part of the process of: | [[reading for understanding]] |
|! prior steps:                  | [[inspectional reading]] |
|! next:                    | [[reading for diction]] |

For each "segment" of ordinary reading as defined by the "segment size" that you noticed:
# Identify [[clauses|clause (grammar)]].
# Wordlessly grasp the [[grammatical structure|English grammar]] of each clause.
** Clauses which violate the cognitive requirements of reading should be [[simplified|the art of plain talk]], perhaps by writing several simple [[proposition]]s covering the information.
# Grasp [[relations between individual propositions]].
# [[Unite propositions|uniting propositions]] and grasp [[the development of the paragraph|development of a paragraph]].
confronts issues; doens't hide any issues they have with me

informs me about changes; tells me about changes in their lives that could (or does) affect the friendship

doesn't let me interpret; corrects me if I'm wrong ; doesn't set up situations where I am mistaken about their intentions,_rule_of.html

The fundamental characteristic is the [[characteristic|characteristics]] that explains the most other characteristics.  Those other characteristics are then regarded as the [[proprium]] covered by the [[definition]].

It is important to discover or validate the fundamental characteristic first-hand, by processing the characteristics of units.  This process [[prepares the human mind to recall|thinking in essentials]] any of the [[proprium]] that led to the discovery.  Furthermore, it enables one to anticipate other [[proprium]] in the course of applying the [[concept]].  

But what about the characteristics that cannot be explained by the fundamental?  How can they be reached quickly?  By recalling a wide variety of concrete examples.

Are the explanandum properties analogous to Aristotle's "properties are effects"?
Arrays begin with the zeroth element.  If you call a numbered element from an array, make sure you are referring to the correct one.

declaring an array:
{{{$stringthings = array("", "", "", "");}}}

retrieving an item from an array:
{{{echo $stringthings{0} . " is the first item in the array of stringthings, and you can get it with curly braces";}}}
{{{echo $stringthings[2] . " is the third item in the array of stringthings";}}} 

considering each element:
foreach ($nameofarray as $particularmember) {

add an element to the end of the array and save as larger array:

get length of array, i.e. count number of elements in array:

sort and save:

sort reverse and save:
[[firewall]] -- [[web application firewall]] vs [[network firewall]]
[[network switch]]
[[Virtual Local Area Network]]
[[load balancer]]
[[proxy server]]
[[web security gateway]]
[[VPN concentrator|Virtual Private Network concentrator]]
[[URL filtering]]

intrusion response:
* [[NIDS|network intrusion detection system]]
* [[NIPS|network intrusion prevention system]]
* [[HIPS|host intrusion prevention system]]

[[utilities for network security]]:
* [[protocol analyzer]] 
* [[packet sniffer]]

for a computer or other programmable device

conceptual subdivisions:
* by level:
** [[machine language]]
** [[assembly language]]
** [[high-level programming language]]
* by complexity of execution:
** [[scripting language]]

parts of a programming language:
* primitives
** [[data type]]
** elements of language that are providing structure
* means of combination: [[expression|expression (computing)]]
** conditional expression -- predicate, consequent, alternative
* means of abstraction -- How to use the combinations as though they were primitive elements?
** conditional clause -- predicate clause to satisfy, the action to execute if the predicate clause is satisfied
** define
|! hierarchical classification: | [[sentence]] |
|! differentia: | describe what the [[paragraph]] will be about |
|! purpose:    | ensure that the reader has clear expectations |
|! part of:       | [[paragraph]] |
Don't multiply causal agents beyond necessity.

If you have two [[possible]] [[explanation]]s for a phenomenon that are equally good, the one that requires fewer assumptions is preferable.  

Uniformity of process: 
If a past phenomenon can be understood as the result of a [[process]] now acting in time and space, do not invent an extinct or unknown cause as its explanation
|! hierarchical classification: | [[Conspicuous Instances]] |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]]s of comparable degree |
|! identification:           | degree is [[invariant|invariance]] with respect to variation in form  |
|! demonstrates that:   | characteristic depends on quantity or degree of something |

e.g. weight of gold and mercury -- weight depends on quantity of matter rather than compactness

program for managing quantitative instances:

things are arranged into an order so as to become interconnected

* [[assemblage]]
A paradigm consists of [[concept]]s and [[proposition]]s that were formed in response to a set of phenomena.  Paradigms are designed to [[explain|explanation]] certain things.  When a paradigm confronts data that it was not created to explain, it is sometimes necessary to interpret that data by means of the paradigm.  However, such interpretations sometimes lead to contradictions among [[foundational proposition]]s previously held with certainty.

Thus, new [[evidence]] can lead to contradictions among [[warranted]] propositions.

Since contradictions are [[verbal rather than metaphysical|no contradictions in reality]], there must have been a thinking error.  Maybe the new evidence was collected improperly.  Maybe the interpretation is wrong.  Maybe one of the [[foundational proposition]]s needs modification.  Or maybe an entirely new [[concept]] is needed and the set of [[proposition]]s ought to be modified accordingly.

The new paradigm shows why the old paradigm had become accepted and also successfully deals with the anomalies challenging the old paradigm.

that the language and theories of different paradigms cannot be translated into one another or rationally evaluated against one another — that they are incommensurable
so you can't judge prior theories by the methodology of the new paradigm
|! prior actions: | table of instances of a [[universal of inductive interest]], including [[Instances of Power]] |

# For each particular instance, 
** survey the entire particular situation
** record all distinguishing facts by applying appropriate [[concept]]s (which you already possessed before you discovered the instance)
# Identify how the instance is "privileged" with respect to informing you about the [[attribute]] and its cause.  How does the particular situation inform us that there is an instance of the [[universal of inductive interest]]?
** [[if something changed...|instances of change]]
** [[instrument that makes existents more sensible or rectifies observation|Instances of the Door or Gate]]
** [[perceivable existent makes evident an otherwise imperceptible agent|Summoning Instances]]
# To what sort of existent does the [[universal of inductive interest]] refer?  
** If it's an entity, how does the entity in this particular instance vary over time?
*** [[if there are stages of development...|Instances of the Road]]
*** [[if by position...|Instances of the Course]]
** If it's an event, how much time is required for this particular instance?
*** [[Instances of the Course]]
** If it's an attribute, how does the attribute vary measurably across space for this particular instance?
*** confined to definite volume
*** transitional skin, e.g. surface tension of water
*** [[if varies across space...|Instances of Range or of Limitation]]
** If it's a phenomenon of consciousness, how does it vary among people?
* [[knowledge]] of causes
* established as fact
* open-ended
* systematic -- scientific knowledge is not an aggregate of disconnected information but a system of ideas logically connected among each other, so that a change to one part necessitates a reinterpretation of the others

the pursuit of scientific knowledge:
* to establish facts
* to describe facts by means of producing empirical data (which are confirmed statements about facts)
* to explain facts
** by identify components giving rise to any situation encountered
** by searching for a set of [[lawful principles|scientific law]]
* to give more precise meaning to concepts (by means of providing scientific definitions)

the pursuit of precise knowledge:
* mathematical reasoning offers predictive power

output of a [[compiler (computing)]]

An executable is object code ready to be executed.
uncover chain of barriers to adopting the injection:
# For each injection in the FRT, identify facts which obstruct adoption.
# Until you reach the current situation:
** For overcoming each barrier/obstacle, identify what intermediate objective must be met.
** For each intermediate objective, identify facts which obstruct adoption.
There are very small particles which combine into detectable bodies.

There must be a vacuum, i.e. something not occupied by any particle whatsoever.  For, if the Universe were full of such particles, how could any of them move? 
"Nothing" refers to the (logical) absence of things. There is no "nothing" outside of a consciousness projecting absence

* [[metaphysical vs epistemological]]
order in which statements are executed or evaluated

control flow in various programming languages:
* [[control flow in PHP]]
* [[control flow in Ruby]]
* incompatible characteristics
* definition by non-essentials
* [[package-deal]]
* [[false analogy]]
[[evidence]] based
a graph having more than one edge for at least one pair of vertices

objects of verbal communication:
* [[word]]
* [[phrase]]
* [[sentence]]
* [[paragraph]]
* [[précis]]

standards for word-choice:
* shortest word for conveying an idea directly and clearly
** use familiar diction
** For English, favor Saxon words over Latin compounds

standards for sentences and paragraphs:
* from [[English grammar]]
* succinctness of a statement -- both clear and brief
* say as much as is needed to convey the essential thought but stay relevant
* economy in writing -- words in a [[sentence]] v.s. number of sentences forming a [[paragraph]]
* balance between [[abstraction]]s and concretes in the presentation
* variety of expression

structure of verbal communication:
* set up a [[context]]
** motivation
*** story illustrating theme?
*** "Have you ever..."
*** jump right in?
** orientation
* parts
* concretes illustrating theme
* explanation for conclusion, inescapable theory

delimiting a topic:
* the piece ought to be self-contained
** don't raise issues you don't have time to address
** don't issue statements you don't have time to defend
** don't raise questions you don't have time to answer

[[rules for conducting a discussion]]

required of conversation for it to become discussion:
* [[the subject matter must permit genuine discussion]]
* [[the purpose of discussion is to learn]]
* [[listening is more important than presenting]]

"intellectual" rules:
* Be relevant, which means "find out what the issue is and stick to it." Divide the issue into its parts; every complex issue has parts, and move along from one part to another.
* Don't take things for granted. State your assumptions and see if you can get the other participants to state theirs. Make an effort to find out what the other person's assumptions are.
* Try to avoid arguing fallaciously. Don't cite authority as if they were conclusions. Don't argue ad hominem -- that means, don't argue against the person as opposed to against the point. Don't say to the other person, "Oh, that's the kind of thing Republicans say or Democrats say or Socialists say," as if calling it by that kind of name necessarily proves it wrong. That is a terrible fallacy of guilt by association.
* Don't agree or disagree with the other person until you understand what that person has said. This rule requires you in the course of discussion to say to the other person, "Now let me see if I can say in my own words what you have just said." And then having done that, you turn to them and say, "Is that what you mean?" And if they say, "Yes, it is; that's exactly what I mean," then you are for the first time privileged to say, "I agree with you," or "I disagree with you," and not one moment sooner.
* If, after understanding the other person, you do disagree, state your disagreement specifically and give reasons why. You can tell the other person what is wrong with their argument in four very sharp, specific ways. You can say: 
** "You are uninformed of certain relevant facts and I will show you what they are."
** "You are misinformed. Some of the things you think are relevant facts aren't facts at all, and I will show you why they are not." 
** "You are mistaken in your reasoning and I will show you the mistakes that you have made." 
** "You don't carry your reasoning far enough. There is more to say than you have said and I will tell you what it is." 
* variation involving edges:
** [[directed graph]] has directed edges
** variation involving number of edges:
*** [[empty graph]]
*** [[multigraph]]
*** [[complete graph]] has at least one edge for every pair of vertices
** [[simple graph]], i.e. does NOT have directed edges, multiple edges connecting any pair of vertices, or self-loops
* graphs having length (which is measured by counting edges):
** [[path (graph theory)]], which has endpoints
** [[cycle (graph theory)]]
* variation involving 
|! hierarchical classification:  | practices for [[system administration]] |
|! differentia: | copying data from one place to another |
|! sequence of preconditions: | [[utilities|utility (computing)]] or [[commands|command (computing)]] ← resources |
|! differentiated from: | actions aimed at file management |
|! purpose: | prepare systems and people for restoration of data |

data takes up space
* How much data?

a backup has to be [[somewhere|secondary storage]]
* Where can you put it?
* How can you put it there? What network path is involved?

backups are for restoration
* Who should perform restoration?
* What medium should be used?

the backup [[process|process (computing)]] consumes resources:
* people -- Are you needlessly irritating co-workers?
* time
** How much data?
** Which network pipe?  Any alternatives?
** What's the tradeoff between speedy backup and speedy restoration?
** How much time do you save using incremental rather than differential or full?
** If you do that style, how much slack is there, to accomodate more data in the future?
** What is the optimal backup frequency? 

When should the backup happen?
|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental integration]] ⊃ [[horizontal integration]] |
|! differentia:             | check the coherence and consistency of a complete thought with its "nearest relatives" forming its immediate [[context]] |
|! purpose:                | [[validation]] |

|! part of a process of: | assimilating an item into the total sum of one's knowledge |
|! prior actions:      | [[proposition]] ← [[concept-formation]] |
|! next:                   | issue [[standing orders|standing orders for the subconscious]] to carry forward the process of [[integration|mental integration]]  |

Let "item" designate a complete thought.
# How was the item discovered? [LP] 
** For any given item, you should able to reach memories of perceiving the physical medium of the source.
# What is the particular situation of this item?  How will you use the specifics here?
** What [[distinguishes|conceptual differentiation]] this unit from [[similar|similarity]] existents?
** What constitutes its immediate environment?
** What are the immediate causes of the item and of one's knowledge of it? [HB]
** Which index is most important: place, time, source, something else?
# What does it to take to [[conceptualize|conceptualization]] this item?
** What are other examples or instances of this kind of item? [HB]
** What are the similarities?
** Which [[similarity]] encompasses most of the distinctive nature of the item, i.e. includes most of the measurements within ranges of commensurable characteristics?
** How should this item be [[classified|genus]]?
# What facts are most closely related to the item?  If you have difficulty naming them, 
** How does this new item relate to the knowledge "filed" in the next wider category (its [[genus]])? [HB]
** What are its direct applications and/or implications? [HB]
** If you acted on the supposition that the item was true, what would follow?
** What is the [[whole]] in relation to which this new item is an aspect or part?
# What does the item clash wildly with?

* [[context]]
* coherence
* logical consistency


preconditions for an action or process:
makes possible:

[[echein]] (condition resulting from having been acted upon):

[[keisthai]] (condition resulting from action):

[[measurement]]s to track:

situations (with respect to other things):

[[poiéin]] (make or do):

!!managing this topic:
body states/actions to help store aspects:

in queue:

[[axiomatic concepts]]
[[metaphysical presuppositions]]
[[the base of all knowledge]]
[[the laws of logic]]

The processes of [[abstraction]] and [[mental integration]] are more fundamental than [[logic]].

problems in philosophy:
* what's [[unprovable]]
* [[meta-theoretical propositions]]
* [["proving the validity of reason"]]
* [[Kant's antimonies]]

* [[analytic vs synthetic]]
* [[logical truth vs factual truth]]
* [[a priori vs a posteriori]]
* [[necessary vs contingent]]

also related:
* [[logical possibility|logically possible]]
|! hierarchical classification: | relationships between particulars and [[concept]]s |
|! what is considered: | [[unit]](s) of the [[concept]] in relation to previous knowledge |
|! identification:           | contains a substitutable existent |

feed [[causal reasoning]]:
|! next: | [[experimentation]] |

|! hierarchical classification: | [[change]] in the state of [[interaction]] among components |
|! differentia: | passing through some [[threshold]] of [[change]], giving rise to qualitative difference |
What sorts of things draw your [[attention]]?

What stirs passion?
|! hierarchical classification: | [[systematically|system of abstract thought]] organized [[unity]] of [[knowledge]] ⊃ [[theory]] |
|! differentia: | |

A scientific theory has [[wider|abstraction from abstractions]] [[generality|generalization]] than [[explanatory laws|higher-level explanatory law]] or particular [[explanation]]s about particular effects.  A theory explains [[directly empirical scientific law]]s as well as specific observations.

A scientific theory must be well-substantiated and well-supported.  

A physically testable theory [[explains|explanation]] an [[open-ended set|the open-endedness of concepts]] of phenomena.   A physically testable theory [[predicts|prediction]] facts yet to be identified.  
|! hierarchical classification: | [[network devices and technologies]] ⊃ [[servers|server (computing)]] |
|! differentia:              | acts as an intermediary for [[client|client (computing)]] requests |
|! by means of:          | filtering content |
|! fundamental characteristic: | contains local cache |
|! purpose:                | serve requests by clients for Internet services |

examples of placement:
* between private network and Internet, for the purpose of securing connectivity (requires two network interfaces)
* internal, for the purpose of caching web content by means of the local cache
* parallel with IP routers, for the purpose of [[network load balancing]]

can serve in the capacity of:
* [[bastion host]]
* logger
tests machines for known vulnerabilities and checks for whether software is on the latest version and/or has the latest patches
mental structure that:
* is created over time
* evolves, sometimes slowly and sometimes quickly
* contains information in an organized form enabling you to access it

[[Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking]]

also see:
* [[category]]
* [[categorization]]
* [[similarity]]
* [[concept]]
* use what you haven't used
** look for ideas in new places
** changing routine
** change viewpoints
* study what you're trying to understand
** dig
** [[context]]
* [[questioning]]
* talking to people from other disciplines
* articulation
no innate ideas, tabula rasa
Experience gives us ideas, which are states of consciousness having some sort of referent

[[concept empiricism]]
Given [[abstraction from abstractions]], some concepts are more general than others.  

The result of filing and cross-filing is a hierarchy with two ends: 
* first-level concepts, i.e. concepts of entities 
* [[axiomatic concepts]]

* [[classification]]
>Knowledge is contextual . . . By “[[context]]” we mean the sum of cognitive elements conditioning the acquisition, validity or application of any item of human knowledge. Knowledge is an organization or [[integration|integration of facts]] of interconnected elements, each relevant to the others . . . Knowledge is not a mosaic of independent pieces each of which stands apart from the rest . . . .
>In regard to any concept, idea, proposal, theory, or item of [[knowledge|Ayn Rand's views on knowledge]], never forget or ignore the context on which it depends and which conditions its validity and use.
~Leonard Peikoff, “The Philosophy of Objectivism” , lecture series (1976), Lecture 5.

[[knowledge as a unity]]
|! application | !protocol | !tcp port | !udp port |
| email | [[IMAP|internet message access protocol]] | tcp/143 |
| email | [[SMTP|simple mail transfer protocol]] | tcp/25 |
| email | [[POP|post office protocol]] | tcp/110 |
| remote | [[telnet]] | tcp/23 |
| remote | [[SSH|secure shell]] | tcp/22 |
| remote | [[portmap]] | |
| management | [[BOOTP|bootstrap protocol]] || udp/67 |
| management | [[DHCP|dynamic host configuration protocol]] || udp/67 |
| management | [[DNS|domain name system]] | tcp/53 | udp/53 |
| management | [[SNMP|simple network management protocol]] | tcp/161 | |
| browser | [[HTTP|hypertext transfer protocol]] | tcp/80 | udp/80 |
| browser | [[HTTPS|hypertext transfer protocol secure]] | tcp/443 |
| browser | [[SSL|secure sockets layer]] | |
| transfer | [[FTP|file transfer protocol]] | tcp/20 and 21 ||
| transfer | [[TFTP|trivial file transfer protocol]] || udp/69 |
| VOIP | [[SIP|session initiation protocol]] | |
| VOIP | [[RTP|real-time transfer protocol]] | |
[[Threads|thread of execution]] and [[processes|process (computing)]] are [[scheduled for processing time|scheduling (computing)]].
Data flows are given access to communication [[bandwidth]]
|! hierarchical classification: | [[mental processes]] ⊃ [[conceptualization]] ⊃ [[abstraction from abstractions]] |
|! fundamental characteristic:    |  more precise [[conceptual differentiation]]s |
|! purpose:       | |
|! aspect of:      | |
|! prior action:  | [[concept-formation]] |
|! result:           | [[subcategory]] |

* [[specialization (computing)]]

criteria for conceptual subdivision:
* should identify a range along an "axis" of the concept
* resulting species should be mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive
|! hierarchical classification:   | [[data structure]] ⊃ [[composite data type]] |
|! differentia: | used to hold a value that could take on several different [[types|data type]] |
* ultimately, there is one, therefore either you are for it or against it
* ultimately, there is many, therefore you shouldn't "oversimplify"
* one in the many
* one without the many, [[abstraction]]s at the expense of concretes
* many without [[unity]], action regardless of consequences

Objectivism's emphasis on recognition of metaphysical unity and the practice of epistemological [[integration|mental integration]]
* [[principle]] of unit economy
* [[loyalty]]
* trade
** specializing in a type of work
** offering incentive/reward for work
** providing time-sensitive information
** medium of exchange: money for strangers, favors for friends
* subverting intellect
** allowing misinterpretations to occur by omitting key [[fact]]s
** deliberately misleading
** emotional manipulation
* [[delegated power]]
* social system involving non-coercive penalties
* coercive power
* [[philosophy of science]]
* [[proposition]]
|! hierarchical classification:       | grammatical structures ⊃ [[adjunct (grammar)]] |
|! differentia: | establish the condition in which an action occurs or state holds |

> I would go to Paris, //if I had the money//.
|! hierarchical classification:       | software [[program|computer program]] |
|! differentia: | designed to help maintain a computer |
|! by means of: | performing a single task or a small range of tasks |
|! differentiated from: | application software (which tend to be software suites) |

[[unit]]s (what utilities might do):
* manage
* tune
* analyze
* configure
* optimize

utilities usually concern the computer's infrastructure:
* hardware
* [[operating system]]
* application software
|''Description''|Adds a random color palette to TiddlyWiki|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
Sets and saves a random color palette on execution

Creates a button, which when clicked will change the color palette
More information at
RGB.prototype.toRGBString = function() {
	return "rgb(%0,%1,%2)".format(parseInt(this.r * 255, 10),
		parseInt(this.g * 255, 10), parseInt(this.b * 255, 10))
function HSL_TO_RGB(h, s, l) { // h (hue) between 0 and 360, s (saturation) & l (lightness) between 0 and 1
	var c = l <= 0.5 ? 2 * l * s : ( 2 - (2 * l)) * s;
	var h1 = h / 60;
	var x = c * (1 - Math.abs((h1 % 2) - 1)); 
	var r, g, b;
	if(typeof(h) == 'undefined') {
		r = 0;
		g = 0;
		b = 0;
	} else if(0 <= h1 && h1 < 1) {
		r = c;
		g = x;
		b = 0;
	} else if(1 <= h1 && h1 < 2) {
		r = x;
		g = c;
		b = 0;
	} else if(2 <= h1 && h1 < 3) {
		r = 0;
		g = c;
		b = x;
	} else if(3 <= h1 && h1 < 4) {
		r = 0;
		g = x;
		b = c;
	} else if(4 <= h1 && h1 < 5) {
		r = x;
		g = 0;
		b = c;
	} else if(5 <= h1 && h1 < 6) {
		r = c;
		g = 0;
		b = x;
	m = l - (0.5 * c);
	return new RGB(r + m, g + m, b + m);

	var macro = config.macros.RandomColorPalette = {
		messagesOn: false, 
		changedPaletteText: "We have assigned you a random theme by adjusting the [[ColorPalette]] tiddler.\nDon't like it? Click <<RandomColorPalette>> for another one.", 
		handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
			paramString = paramString || "";
			var options = macro.getOptions(paramString);
			macro.generatePalette(options, true);
		optionTypes: {
			floats: ["hue", "saturation", "darkest", "lightness", "huevariance", "dark", "pale", "light", "mid",
				"saturation_light", "saturation_pale", "saturation_mid", "saturation_dark"
		getOptions: function(paramString) {
			var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
			var options = {};
			var numbers = macro.optionTypes.floats;
			for(var i in args) {
				options[i] = numbers.indexOf(i) > -1 ? parseFloat(args[i][0], 10) : args[i][0];
			return options;
		generateRandomNumber: function(min, max, info) {
			var num = (Math.random() * 1);
			info = !info ? { attempts:0 } : info;
			info.attempts += 1;
			var good = true;
			if(min == max) {
				return max;
			if(min && num < min) {
				good = false;
			} else if(max && num > max) {
				good = false;
			if(!good) {
				if(info.attempts < 5) {
					return macro.generateRandomNumber(min, max, info);
				} else {
					if(max) {
						return max;
					} else if(min) {
						return min;
					} else {
						return 1;
			return num;
		getExistingPalette: function(asJSON) {
			var title = "ColorPalette";
			var tiddlerText;
			if(store.tiddlerExists(title)) {
				tiddlerText = store.getTiddlerText(title);
			} else if(store.isShadowTiddler(title)){
				tiddlerText = config.shadowTiddlers[title];
			if(asJSON) {
				var json = {};
				if(tiddlerText) {
					var lines = tiddlerText.split("\n");
					for(var i = 0; i < lines.length; i++) {
						var definition = lines[i].split(":");
						if(definition.length == 2) {
							var name = definition[0].trim();
							var value = definition[1].trim();
							json[name] = value;
				return json;
			} else {
				return tiddlerText;
		generatePalette: function(options, save) {
			var outputRGB = options.rgb;
			var palette = macro.getExistingPalette(true);
			var hue = options.hue || Math.floor(Math.random() * 359);
			var saturation = options.saturation || macro.generateRandomNumber(0.3, 0.7);
			var dark = options.dark || options.darkest || macro.generateRandomNumber(0, 0.10);
			var pale = options.pale || options.lightness || macro.generateRandomNumber(0.90, 1);
			var delta = ( ( pale - dark ) / 3 );
			var mid = options.mid || dark + delta;
			var light = options.light || dark + (delta * 2);
			var lightness_values = {Dark: dark, Mid: mid, Light: light, Pale: pale};
			var saturation_values = {};
			for(i in lightness_values) {
				if(true) {
					saturation_values[i] = options["saturation_" + i.toLowerCase()] || saturation;

			var opposite_hue = (hue + 180) % 360;
			var seed = options.huevariance || Math.floor((85 * Math.random()) + 5); // we want it to be at least 5 degrees
			var huetwo = (opposite_hue + seed) % 360;
			var huethree = (opposite_hue - seed) % 360;
			if(huetwo < 0) {
				huetwo = 360 + huetwo;
			if(huethree < 0) {
				huethree = 360 + huethree;
			for(var j in lightness_values) {
				if(true) {
					var saturation = saturation_values[j];
					palette["Primary" + j] = HSL_TO_RGB(hue, saturation, lightness_values[j]);
					palette["Secondary" + j] = HSL_TO_RGB(huetwo, saturation, lightness_values[j]);
					palette["Tertiary" + j] = HSL_TO_RGB(huethree, saturation, lightness_values[j]);
			palette.Background = HSL_TO_RGB(hue, saturation, 0.92);
			palette.Foreground = HSL_TO_RGB(hue, saturation, 0.08);
			palette.ColorPaletteParameters = ["HSL([", hue, "|", seed, "], [", saturation_values.Pale, "|",
				saturation_values.Light, "|", saturation_values.Mid, "|", saturation_values.Dark, "],",
				"[", dark, "|", mid, "|", light, "|", pale, "])"].join("");
			// construct new ColorPalette
			var text = ["/*{{{*/\n"];
			var colorcode;
			for(var id in palette) {
				if(true) {
					var color = palette[id];
					colorcode = outputRGB ? color.toRGBString() : color.toString();
					text.push("%0: %1\n".format(id, colorcode));
			text = text.join("");
			if(save) {
			return text;
		saveColorPalette: function(text) {
			var tid = store.getTiddler("ColorPalette");
			if(!tid) {
				tid = new Tiddler("ColorPalette");
				tid.fields = merge({}, config.defaultCustomFields);
			} // TODO: detect that the ColorPalette in the space comes from outside recipe
			tid.fields[""] = "false"; // edit conflicts dont matter

			// save the color palette in tid
			tid = store.saveTiddler(tid.title, tid.title, text, tid.modifier, tid.modified,
				tid.tags, tid.fields, false, tid.created, tid.creator);
			// an interval is used to cope with users clicking on the palette button quickly.
			if(macro._nextSave) {
			macro._nextSave = window.setTimeout(function() {
					autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
				}, 2000);
			// temporary workaround for IE.
			$.twStylesheet.remove({ id: "StyleSheetColors" });
			$.twStylesheet.remove({ id: "StyleSheet" });
			return tid;
		reportChange: function() {
			if(macro.messagesOn) { // only display message once..
				var msgPlace = getMessageDiv();
				if(!$(".changedPalette", msgPlace)[0]) {
					var tempPlace = document.createElement("div");
					wikify("{{changedPalette{" + macro.changedPaletteText + "}}}", tempPlace);
	var btnMacro = config.macros.RandomColorPaletteButton = {
			text: "New ColorPalette",
			tooltip: "Generate a random colour scheme for your TiddlyWiki",
			makeButton: function(place, options) {
				var btnHandler = function(ev) {
					var t = $(;
					var options ="options");
					macro.generatePalette(options, true);
					return false;
				var btn = createTiddlyButton(place, this.text, this.tooltip, btnHandler);
				$(btn).data("options", options);
				return btn;
			handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
				var options = macro.getOptions(paramString);
				btnMacro.makeButton(place, options);
[[Harry Binswanger's views on teleological explanation]]

compositionist [[explanation]]: 
>"in terms of the adaptive usefulness of structures and processes to the whole organism.... It is... scientifically meaningful to say that, for instance, a lion has its thoroughgoing adaptations to predation //because// they meaintain the life of the lion"  
~//George G. Simpson's This View of Life//

another position:
> "Teleological explanations account for the existence of a certain feature in a system by demonstrating the feature's contribution to a specific property or state of that system" 
~Theodore Dobzhansky, et alia, _Evolution_, SF: W.H. Freeman, 1977, p. 498)
|! hierarchical classification: | mental process |

levels of introspection:
* awareness of content as content
* awareness of recent action performed with content
* awareness of cognitive structures (e.g. [[mental pathway]]s)
* sets
* [[relation]]
** [[relational algebra]]
* [[concepts of numbers]]
* [[mathematical equation]]
* [[mathematical group]]
* [[algebra]]
* [[coordinate system]]
* [[dimension]]
* [[mathematical field]]
* [[mathematical ring]]
* [[module over a ring]]
* [[manifold]]
* [[degrees of freedom]]

* [[topology]]

[[philosophy of mathematics]]

[[discrete math]]
[[vector space]]
[[group theory]]
[[category theory]]
integration as uniting the parts into an inseparable whole

inductive proof of his view:
# observe examples of integration
# identify the meaning of the concept explicitly: discover the defining factor implicit in the examples
# relate integration to several other concepts that are distinct from it, yet [[essential]] to knowing its full meaning:
** [[whole]] -- "identifies the fact that an entity is made of constituents"
** [[connection]] -- "identifies the specific nature of a definite relationship"
** [[necessary]] -- "identifies the philosophic base and thus the full meaning of 'connection'"
** [[system]] -- "identifies the fact that it is man who puts the constituents into a definite relationship"
** one -- "identifies a whole quantitatively, in contrast to its surroundings and its own constituents"

Math_Bot thinks that the definition for "one" should be "identifies a whole quantitatively, considered distinct from its surroundings and its own constituents"
concentric rings composing the surface of a [[storage disk platter]]

Each track is subdivided into multiple [[sectors|storage disk sector]] or blocks of consistently-sized (often 512 bytes) segments of storage. The result is that each track contains a set number of sectors.

The set of all the tracks between two radii in a hard drive constitutes a cylinder.
specialized hardware that handles a specific translation:
[[virtual addresses|virtual address space]] seen by the application software into physical addresses used by the hardware to process instructions

what it can do:
* read its mapping table, the [[page table]]
Some [[concept]]s and [[proposition]]s are [[more general|generalization]] than others.

Human awareness ([[perception]]) begins with objects the size of a meter or two.  Concepts of microscopic particles and large scale structures must be reached through [[abstraction from abstractions|concept-formation]].

A recliner is a type of chair, which is a type of furniture.

* [[conceptual hierarchy]]

* [[hierarchical reduction]]
; 8th, 
> If we cannot obtain a complete negative or opposition of the circumstance whose influence we would ascertain, we must endeavour to find cases where it varies considerably in degree. If this cannot be done, we may perhaps be able to weaken or exalt its influence by the introduction of some fresh circumstance, which, abstractedly considered, seems likely to produce this effect, and thus obtain indirect evidence of its influence. But then we are always to remember, that the evidence so obtained is indirect, and that the new circumstance introduced may have a direct influence of its own, or may exercise a modifying one on some other circumstance.

[[Herschel on Inductive Rules of Philosophizing]]
* [[forms of causal statements]]
* [[higher-level explanatory law]]

regarding products:
* [[assessments of the evidence for a conclusion]]
* [[guidelines for adding components to a theory]]
|! hierarchical classification: | parts of [[operating system]] ⊃ parts of [[graphical user interface]] |
|! purpose:     | handles user input, e.g. handles mouse clicks |

* FE Window Manager
* Enlightenment -- basis for GNOME desktop
* K Window Manager -- basis for K Desktop Environment

what a window can have:
* controls for size and position
* hierarchical menu
* scrollbar -- has width
If what the "code" actually means is not what you intended, you have committed a semantic error.

You will need to parse the code, e.g. examine the syntactic structure of a [[computer program]]

antecedent knowledge:
* that a [[computer program]] can have semantic meaning

doesn't incur a huge debt

doesn't constantly ask for money

doesn't automatically assume that I will supply support
; artificial split between reality and consciousness
>"We are perfectly justified in maintaining that only what is within ourselves can be immediately and directly perceived, and that only my own existence can be the object of a mere perception. Thus the existence of a real object outside me can never be given immediately and directly in perception, but can only be added in thought to the perception, which is a modification of the internal sense, and thus inferred as its external cause ... . In the true sense of the word, therefore, I can never perceive external things, but I can only infer their existence from my own internal perception, regarding the perception as an effect of something external that must be the proximate cause ... . It must not be supposed, therefore, that an idealist is someone who denies the existence of external objects of the senses; all he does is to deny that they are known by immediate and direct perception ... .
~Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, A367 f.
* [[concept]]s
** examples
** [[definition]]s
* [[evidence]]
* restate in your own terms
concatenation operator:
{{{<?php echo "Hello," . " " . "world" . "!";}}}

operators that compare:

logical operators:
if she perceives a conflict between our respective values, she brings it up and talks about her opinions on the matter

handles difference of taste in such a way that we can both enjoy what we like without getting in each other's way
[[teaching children how to think]]

children are for the most part shrewed skeptical stonished in spite of themselves suspicious, easily bored, impatient for sensible explanations
an organized [[system]] or method
for regulation of the parts or functions of any organic [[whole]]

Good writing must operate smoothly, with a minimum of friction, within the reader's mind.  
* The reader should not have to stumble over poor construction.
* The reader should not have to actively search for what is being modified.  

The reader should have the minimum number of words to convey the greatest meaning and underscore the gravity of the situation.

"very sorry to hear of her death" sounds disingenuous
"grieved to hear of her death" conveys the level of impact of the event
Also called "Legitimate Power", it refers to power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization. Positional Power is formal authority delegated to the holder. 
"The second method of establishing a causal connection between an action and an effect is by subsuming the instance in hand under a general law."
~Charles A. Mercier on Causation and Causality

> When our waterpipes burst in winter, we find the cause at once by subsuming the case under the general law that water in freezing expands with immeasurable force; and by this subsumption the action of the frost and the bursting of the pipes are connected. 

> When the cook goes to the cupboard for a pot of jam, and finds it is not there, she says at once 'Someone must have taken it.' She subsumes this instance under the general law that inanimate things do not move from their places without external agency. 

> When the price of fish rises, and we hear of gales in the North Sea, we assume a causal connection between the action and the change, and we do so on the strength of the general law that, other things remaining the same, restriction of supply raises prices; and we know that gales in the North Sea do restrict the supply of fish to this country.

> If the river overflows its bunks, we assume, unless it is a tidal river, that there has been much rain in its catchment basin, and we make this assumption on the strength of the general law that caeteris non mutandis, the level of a river depends on the rainfall in the catchment area. 

> If we find an object of gold or silver that shows signs of having been melted, we assume at once that it has been subjected to great heat, for it is a general law that great heat is necessary to the melting of gold and silver.

> If we find iron rusty, we assume that it must have been damp, for it is a general law that dry iron does not rust.

> When we are seeking the cause of a rare disease, and we find that it affects the members of several families in conformity with the laws of Mendel, we have no hesitation in concluding that the cause is hereditary transmission. 

A [[user account]] contains access control information.

An [[ACL|access control list]] specifies user account permissions for reading/writing/executing a specific object.

Modern [[file system]]s allow for some level of control over access for a specific file, but that control varies from one file system to another.

|! hierarchical classification: | components of a [[computer processor]] ⊃ [[processor register]] |
|! differentia: | can hold numeric values, characters, small bit arrays |

* [[primitive data type]]
|! hierarchical classification: | methods for securing data ⊃ techniques for encryption |
|! purpose: | secure symmetric cryptographic key material for transmission ➞ [[confidentiality|information security: confidentiality]] |
|! by means of:   | asymmetric public-key algorithms |
> The greatest harm can result from the best intentions.  Kindness and good intentions can be an insidious path to destruction. Sometimes doing what seems right is wrong, and can cause harm. The only counter to it is knowledge, wisdom, forethought, and understanding the First Rule. Even then, that is not always enough.
~Terry Goodkind, Stone of Tears: Chapter 63, page 634
function //name//(//...various parameters...//) {

defining a function that's bound to a class:
[[methods in PHP]]

defining a function that can be used without an [[instance of a class|instance (computing)]]:
[[static functions in PHP]]

|! purpose: | reusable action |

* parameters
* output
use similarity of syntax to emphasize [[similarity]] of constituent thoughts
A corollary is a [[self-evident]] implication of previous [[knowledge]].

The identification of corollaries requires a process of [[horizontal integration]].  Some self-evident [[generalization]]s, at a later stage of [[understanding|understanding intellectual products]], can be recognized as corollaries of [[axiom]]s.  But such [[generalization]]s are NOT initially reached through [[deduction]].  Even corollaries must first be grasped independently and inductively. Only after knowing [[high-level philosophical generalizations|principle]] for years and taking them for granted can then some of them be integrated with the metaphysical axioms by recognizing their corollary relation.

e.g. [[Causality|causality]] is not some [[deduction]] from [[the Law of Identity]].  Effect IS [[identity]] -- as response of [[entity]] to a [[change]].

* [[causality]] is a corollary of [[identity]]
* [[non-contradiction|no contradictions in reality]] is a corollary to "[[Existence is identity]]"
Departure from normal word order attracts attention:
>>We lesser men cannot go so far.
>> So far we lesser men cannot go.

Note that this works best when the subject is already understood so it can be tucked away in the middle of the sentence.
>> I picked him out from all the rest
>> Him I picked out from all the rest.
* what they seem to believe
* what they do
* emotional response
** what types of change they're sensitive to
** what sorts of monotony bore them
** what sorts of things make them mad
** what they laugh at
* acting on emotions
** what they use to "check out" from reality when they need to de-stress and regroup
** how they keep themselves busy
an [[entity]]'s [[state|state of affairs]], which is subject to [[change]]
|! hierarchical classification: | a unique, variable length number  used for identification |

|! part of: | [[security identifier]] of a [[security principal]] |

assigned to objects at creation 
Anything that causes must exist.  If existence had a cause, the cause would be part of existence.  Therefore existence cannot have a cause.

The existence of a thing can be [[explained|explanation]] in terms of previously existing things interacting so as to produce the thing.  But [[existence]] itself requires no explanation because there are no terms of existence outside of existence.
* [[Polychrest Instances or Instances of General Use]]
* [[Instances of Alliance or Union]], which should be followed by the [[method of gradation]]
* If [[two rival theories|underdetermined]] give different [[prediction]]s for a certain situation, then experiment can falsify one of them.
** [[Decisive and Judicial Instances]]

* [[philosophy of science]]
      $welcome = "Let's get started with PHP!";
      echo $welcome;

[[variables in PHP]]
[[constants in PHP]]
[[standard output in PHP]]
[[inputs in PHP]]
[[operators in PHP]]
[[control flow in PHP]]
[[functions in PHP]]
[[classes in PHP]]
[[objects in PHP]]
[[methods in PHP]]
[[libraries in PHP]]
measurements of electric power:
* voltage
* electric current
* frequency of AC
* waveform of AC
* total harmonic distortion (to wave)
* noise caused by wiggled electromagnetic fields, e.g. RFI and EMI
|''Description''|renders base64-encoded binary tiddlers as images or links|
(function($) {

"use strict";

var ctfield = "server.content-type";

var plugin = config.extensions.BinaryTiddlersPlugin = {
	isWikiText: function(tiddler) {
		var ctype = tiddler.fields[ctfield];
		if(ctype) {
			if (ctype === 'text/x-tiddlywiki') {
				return true;
			return !this.isBinary(tiddler) && !this.isTextual(ctype);
		} else {
			return true;
	// NB: pseudo-binaries are considered non-binary here
	isBinary: function(tiddler) {
		var ctype = tiddler.fields[ctfield];
		return ctype ? !this.isTextual(ctype) : false;
	isTextual: function(ctype) {
		return ctype.indexOf("text/") === 0
			|| this.endsWith(ctype, "+xml")
			|| ctype === 'application/json'
			|| ctype === 'application/javascript';
	endsWith: function(str, suffix) {
		return str.length >= suffix.length &&
			str.substr(str.length - suffix.length) === suffix;
	isLink: function(tiddler) {
		return this.isBinary(tiddler) && tiddler.text.indexOf("<html>") !== -1;

// Disable edit for linked tiddlers (for now)
// This will be changed to a GET then PUT
config.commands.editTiddler.isEnabled = function(tiddler) {
    var existingTest = config.commands.editTiddler.isEnabled;
    if (existingTest) {
        return existingTest && !plugin.isLink(tiddler);
    } else {
        return !plugin.isLink(tiddler);

// hijack text viewer to add special handling for binary tiddlers
var _view = config.macros.view.views.wikified;
config.macros.view.views.wikified = function(value, place, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	var ctype = tiddler.fields["server.content-type"];
	if(params[0] === "text" && ctype && ctype !== 'text/x-tiddlywiki' &&
			!tiddler.tags.contains("systemConfig") && !plugin.isLink(tiddler)) {
		var el;
		if(plugin.isBinary(tiddler)) {
			var uri = "data:%0;base64,%1".format([ctype, tiddler.text]); // TODO: fallback for legacy browsers
			if(ctype.indexOf("image/") === 0) {
				el = $("<img />").attr("alt", tiddler.title).attr("src", uri);
			} else {
				el = $("<a />").attr("href", uri).text(tiddler.title);
		} else {
			el = $("<pre />").text(tiddler.text);
	} else {
		_view.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack edit macro to disable editing of binary tiddlers' body
var _editHandler = config.macros.edit.handler;
config.macros.edit.handler = function(place, macroName, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	if(params[0] === "text" && plugin.isBinary(tiddler)) {
		return false;
	} else {
		_editHandler.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack autoLinkWikiWords to ignore binary tiddlers
var _autoLink = Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords;
Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords = function() {
	return plugin.isWikiText(this) ? _autoLink.apply(this, arguments) : false;

|! hierarchical classification: | mental process |
|! purpose: | preserving [[objectivity]] in the use of [[abstraction]]s |

* cures [[floating abstraction]]
* the arts

* precision -- must precisely illustrate the abstraction
* [[basic]], not abstract derivatives
* involves strong values
* help cover the whole field, given other examples

problems of application:
* When should you concretize?  when you introduce abstractions without concretes
* When is it bad to add concretes?  when it violates unit-economy
|! purpose     |! example |
| load library | {{{require 'popup'}}} |
A [[proposition]] that is "necessarily true" is one whose negation is self-contradictory (thus, it is said to be true in every possible world). The negation of "All bachelors are unmarried" is incoherent because unmarried is part of the concept "bachelor".  Thus, "All bachelors are married" is "necessarily true".

By contrast, a [[proposition]] that is "contingently true" is one whose negation is not self-contradictory (thus, it is said that it is not true in every possible world).  Thus that a bachelor could jump over the moon is "contingently true".  So is "our solar system has exactly 9 planets"

According to Objectivism, a concept includes ALL the [[characteristics|Ayn Rand's views on characteristics]] of its units.  Therefore, any proposition denying a non-essential characteristic of a concept is ALSO incoherent.  Again, [[the meaning of a concept includes more than the definition]].  

Any proposition about a particular state of affairs is necessarily true by virtue of [[the Law of Identity]].  A thing is what it is.

Thus, all true [[proposition]]s are necessarily true.

* [[logically possible]]
* [[analytic vs synthetic]]
* [[logical truth vs factual truth]]

* [[necessary]]
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a group of related words
that has a [[subject|propositional subject]] and a [[predicate]] but points to a larger [[whole]] beyond itself

(contrast this with [[phrase]])
[[psychology of design]]
[[principles of design]]
[[design: standards/criteria]]
[[physical requirements of human existence]]
[[social requirements of human existence]]
[[political requirements of human existence]]

the means:
* [[reason]]
* production
|! hierarchical classification: | goal-directed action ⊃ [[purposeful action]] |
|! differentia:              | planned way of proceeding |
|! by means of:          | |
|! differentiated from: | |
|! fundamental characteristic: | |
|! purpose:                 | ⊂➞ success |
|! omit:                       | |

* [[methodos]]
* [[method (computing)]]


[[keisthai]] (situation/position resulting from action):